Article is devoted to straw use, with its seal to the soil, as one of numerous ways of return of organic chemistry to the soil. In it it is said that introduction of straw increases the maintenance of a humus, improves soil structure, water and air modes, reduces her tendency to an erosion, stimulates azotofiksatsiya process. Straw – the power supply for soil microorganisms.
Article is intended for specialists of agronomical services of agricultural enterprises and farms.
Scientists are deeply convinced that for the last nearly 100 years the maintenance of a humus in the Ukrainian chernozems decreased by a half. And to prevent further exhaustion of the soil, in their opinion, it is possible under condition of sufficient balance of a humus. In other words, that part of organic chemistry and elements of a food which is used for crop formation, should come back to the soil in the form of the pozhnivny remains, collateral production, organic and mineral fertilizers.
The doctor of agricultural sciences, the professor, the director of Institute of forages of UAAN Vladimir Betrichenko, being guided by data of many scientific institutions and the experience, argues that for ensuring sufficient balance of a humus under condition of saturation of a zernosveklovichny crop rotation by propashny cultures to 28 % and existence of a field of long-term herbs in it it is necessary to bring on each hectare of the area of a crop rotation of 8-10 t/hectares of manure and 120 kg/hectares of of century of mineral fertilizers annually.
In many countries of Europe and the West the accurate tendency to a plant growing biologizatsiya now is looked through. This process begins with crop rotation improvement. In it, in particular, include herbs and bean.
To increase in its production led expansion of the areas under the grain. Sharp and considerable reduction of a livestock of cattle, transition to high technologies its intensive otkorma was an incitement to that straw in diets of animals honor or completely disappeared.
Scientists came to a conclusion that it can be used with success for others, the most useful, is more whole. It is no other than one of numerous ways of return of organic chemistry to the soil.
On the biological components straw, after its seal to the soil, is a power material for cultural soil formation. Introduction of straw increases the maintenance of a humus, improves soil structure, reduces her tendency to an erosion, stimulates azotifikatsiya process. Straw – the power supply for soil microorganisms. At its zapakhivaniye water and air modes and absorbing ability of the soil improve.
Fertilizer is often carried out by straw with rough technological violations. Straw crush and leave for a long time on a soil surface. During this time moisture stocks in it are quickly lost, straw dries up, and its decomposition begins after plentiful rains.
Productivity of fertilizers straw depends on how it you will crush the combine, will scatter across the field and will close up to the soil. To clean agricultural culture it is necessary only combines with grinders.
Requirements to cleaning are as follows: height of a cut – aren’t higher than 20 cm; the length of 75 % of particles shouldn’t exceed 10 cm, and particles over 15 cm – no more than 5 %; across the field straw to spread evenly, without creating wolves; straw to close up by means of a disk harrow (BTD-7) on depth to 12 cm, at once after cleaning, without allowing soil drying. Sufficient humidity provides effective work of microorganisms and fast decomposition of straw. Ammoniac saltpeter to bring before straw seal at the rate of N 10/t straw (roughly: 1c saltpeter on 1 hectare); it is obligatory to carry out zyablevy plowing.
In the absence of the necessary equipment the problem can be solved by means of regulation of height of a cut during cleaning. At a direct kombaynirovaniye the height of an eddish can make 30 and even 40 see. Such eddish process heavy disk harrows.
Straw and eddish burning – inadmissible manifestation of mismanagement. Many useful microorganisms are thus destroyed, potential fertility of the soil sharply decreases. Nitrogen and carbon are lost irrevocably. In addition to all these "minuses" burning still works great mischief to environment, are damaged, and even forest belts are destroyed. Straw burning – almost the unique agricultural factor of causing of the damage, equated to industrial emissions in the atmosphere.
The neglect entering into the nitrogen soil, is a big mistake. For decomposition of straw the microorganisms having the albuminous nature are necessary. Nitric fertilizers for this purpose also are brought to lower a ratio With: N to improve conditions of decomposition and to promote active formation of a biomass of microorganisms.
Pripakhivaniye without introduction of nitric fertilizers leads straw to sharp reduction of the content of mineral nitrogen in the soil and to decrease in a crop of the subsequent agricultural cultures. Introduction of straw in number of 35-40 c/hectares with nitrogen compensation (at the rate of N 10/t straw) on the influence on increase of fertility of the soil and productivity is equivalent to introduction of 18-20 t/hectares of manure.
What does the mineralization give? Owing to decomposition of the vegetative remains from them a large amount of phosphorus is liberated: it bring from calculation R8 on each ton of straw. Especially it is important on soils with the insufficient content of available phosphorus. In that case it is necessary to introduce phosphoric and potash fertilizers.
As a result of a mineralization of the vegetative remains from them a significant amount of nutritious elements which come back to the soil is liberated.
The best results can be received, having united two ways of alternative fertilizer organic chemistry. For this purpose after crushing and straw seal to the soil it is necessary vyseyat sideraty. More often for these purposes use cabbage types. In that case the soil is filled with organic chemistry from two sources – straw and green material. Siderata, their root system and green material promote straw decomposition, accelerating this process. All weight pripaxivayut late in the autumn.
Under condition of an early harvest and sufficient stocks of moisture in the soil a radish olive or mustard white in case of sowing them from July 20 to August 10 form a big crop of green material up to September 20-30. Therefore the system of fertilizer of fields stated above straw and green material is expedient for applying and under crops of winter agricultural cultures.
(On newspaper materials To Fermerska a hospodariate).