Scientific base of development of agrarian production ar Crimea

Materials from scientific and practical conference Scientific providing agro-industrial complex of the Autonomous republic Crimea in which activities of the center of scientific providing APP Crimea for performance developed by it together with the Ministry of an agrarian policy of AR Crimea Programs of innovative development of the AR Crimea agro-industrial complex for 2008-2010 are reflected are published. In published materials the full analysis of development of a zernoproizvodstvo and animal husbandry, and also defined as the priority directions of agricultural production of an autonomy – wine growing and winemaking, fruit growing, efiromaslichny production, a tabakovodstvo is given.

On April 3, 2008 in the Crimean institute of agroindustrial production of UAAN (Klepinino’s page of the Krasnogvardeysky area) there took place scientific and practical conference Scientific providing agro-industrial complex of the Autonomous Republic Crimea.

The vice-chairman of Council of ministers of AR Crimea N. P. Kolisnichenko, the minister of an agrarian policy of AR Crimea P.I.Akimov, representatives of the Ministry of an agrarian policy of AR Crimea, deputy chairmen of regional public administrations took part in work of conference on agrarian and industrial complex, chiefs of regional managements of agroindustrial development, heads of agricultural enterprises, representatives of scientific institutions.

Opening conference, the vice-chairman of Council of ministers of AR Crimea N. P. Kolisnichenko told that her purpose is association of achievements of a science and production for lifting of agricultural industry of AR Crimea.

The director of the Crimean institute of agroindustrial production, the head of the Center of scientific providing APP AR of Krymv made a speech at conference with the report A condition and prospects of scientific providing the AR Crimea agro-industrial complex. Page Pashtetsky.

In the performance he noted that the paramount role in activities for introduction of innovations in agricultural production of an autonomy belongs to establishments of the Center of scientific providing APP. Together with the Ministry of an agrarian policy of AR Crimea the Center developed The program of innovative development of the AR Crimea agro-industrial complex on 2008-2010gg. and for the period till 2015 in which the priority directions of development of agricultural industry of AR Crimea are defined: wine growing and winemaking, fruit growing, efiromaslichny production, tabakovodstvo. Development of these branches should provide production of such quantity of production which will be capable to satisfy needs of inhabitants of the Crimea and need of a recreational complex of the peninsula, and also will give the chance to realize production outside of an autonomy for the purpose of obtaining the high and steady income. The growth in volumes of production of agricultural products will allow to expand a network of the processing enterprises, to provide with work rural population and to solve a number of social problems on the village.

Today effective development of agrarian branch is possible only under condition of introduction in agroindustrial production of modern scientific achievements and innovations. On it activity of lead research and research-and-production agencies of the Center of scientific providing APP AR Crimea which structure includes Institute of grapes and UAAN Magarach wine, the Crimean experimental station of gardening of Institute of gardening of UAAN, the Crimean research center of Institute of hydraulic engineering and land improvement of UAAN, NPO Selta of national scientific center Institute of mechanization and electrification of agricultural industry UAAN, the Southern experimental station of Institute of agricultural microbiology of UAAN, the Crimean experimental station of vegetable growing of the APP UAAN Crimean institute and some other is directed.

Spetsialistamikrymsky experimental station of gardening of Institute of gardening of UAAN the system of technological actions for cultivation of shpalerno-dwarfish gardens is improved and fulfilled, resource-saving technologies of the accelerated cultivation of an elite landing material of fruit crops and technology of storage and processing of fruits and berries are developed. By scientists-selectors of station are deduced and entered in the State register of grades of plants of Ukraine of 22 new grades of fruit and berry cultures.

The Uchenymikrymsky research center of Institute of hydraulic engineering and land improvement of UAAN offers on rational use of irrigation water on rice systems of the Crimea and resource-saving ekologo-safe technologies of water purification and an irrigation are developed.

NPO Selta in recent years developed and made 81 samples of new agricultural and selection machinery.

At the Southern experimental station of Institute of agricultural microbiology of UAAN microbic preparations for improvement of a mineral food of plants are created. For example, application of some of them allows to save on each hectare to 90 kg of nitrogen of fertilizers. Product cost thus decreases and its quality improves.

The Sotrudnikamikrymsky experimental station of vegetable growing of the APP Crimean institute created grades of vegetables with high flavoring qualities. Today here seed farming of grades of vegetable cultures is adjusted, demonstration ranges are put, events for scientific providing branch of vegetable growing are held, marketing and advertizing activity is actively conducted.

Functions of head establishment of the Center of scientific providing APP AR Crimea are assigned to the Crimean institute of agroindustrial production of UAAN which coordinates activity of scientific institutions of the AR Crimea agrarian profile through Council of the Center of scientific providing.

By the plan of work of the Center for 2008 and the Program of scientific ensuring agroindustrial production of AR Crimea for 2008 are provided: introduction of 67 scientific development in 28 agroformations of an autonomy, including in 13 base farms of the Center; performance of basic and applied scientific researches on development of branches of agrarian and industrial complex; approbation of the finished scientific development and their introduction in agroindustrial production of the region; scientific and consulting help to agricultural producers and training of specialists of agrarian and industrial complex. Scientific institutions of the Center signed 34 contracts on introduction of scientific development, 6 innovative projects are developed for their further realization in base farms.

The APP UAAN Crimean institute carries out researches in the field of agriculture, plant growing, animal husbandry, selections, seed farmings, agrarian economy on 22 tasks, among which 5 basic researches and 13 UAAN scientific and technical programs.

The institute develops schemes of korotkorotatsionny crop rotations with high level of saturation by the grain crops, allowing to receive 27-29 centners of grain from hectare, processing methods of cultivation of new grades and hybrids of the crops, allowing to raise their productivity, to minimize production expenses and to gain the maximum economic effect.  Work on creation of systems of organic and mineral fertilizers for increase of fertility of the soil proceeds.

At institute tests of various grades of winter and summer grain crops, a winter rape, sorgovy cultures, a soya, sunflower and corn on the basis of which recommendations about use in the Crimean field husbandry of the most adapted for conditions of a steppe zone of grades and hybrids of plants are made are carried out.

Scientists of institute work over selection of grades of corn (in common with specialists of Institute of a grain farm) and winter barley. Today a competitive sortoispytaniye there pass grades of winter barley with potential productivity to 90 c/hectares and with the increased winter hardiness.

From the finished scientific development which pass approbation in agricultural enterprises, it is necessary to note a grade of winter wheat Kozachka-Nova which showed the good efficiency combined with high quality of grain.

Scientists of institute develop two fundamental scientific subjects: kormoproizvodstvo improvement for the cattle-breeding enterprises and improvement existing and creation of new lines and breeds of cattle, pigs and sheep.

Laboratory biotexnologiirabotaet over the production technology healthy (free from viruses and other pathogens) a super-superelite landing material of fruit and flower crops. For providing the agrarian enterprises of the Crimea with a bezvirusny landing material in 2008 from the Crimean budget funds for an additional equipment of one section of a hothouse of a biocomplex are allocated.

The APP Crimean institute and its pilot farm – the producers of elite seeds of the main crops unique in the Crimea. The volume of annual production makes 2,0-2,5 thousand tons of elite seeds that not only satisfies needs of the Crimean agricultural producers, but also allows to provide with seeds of early summer cultures the southern areas of Ukraine.

The animal husbandry condition in the Crimea won’t allow to bring in the next years necessary for increase of fertility of the soil amount of organic fertilizers. The technologies replacing organic fertilizers are necessary, and such technologies are, including at APP Institute. To restore fertility of the soil and to support the maintenance of a humus introduction in production of organic substances in the form of straw, sideratny cultures and long-term herbs will allow at system of superficial processing of the soil that allows to receive annually a grain yield from 40 to 50 c/hectares. This development successfully takes root in a base economy of SPK October institute.

One of leading roles in effective development of agricultural enterprises is played by rational system of processing of the soil. It should be soil-protective, resource-and vlagosberegayushchy. The minimum processing should receive a wide circulation. Application of such technologies allows to reduce considerably an expense of expensive fuels and lubricants and to keep moisture which almost annually is in deficiency. Besides, the minimum processing of the soil is effective soil-protective action at dusty storms which in recent years considerably became frequent. The technology of the minimum processing of the soil developed at institute takes root already practically on a half of the arable areas of AR Crimea. However its application is connected with technical re-equipment of agricultural enterprises that is impossible without additional investments.

In the draft of the resolution About transition of economy of agro-industrial complex of the Autonomous republic Crimea to innovative model of development the Council of ministers decides: To ARK Ministry of Finance annually to provide in the budget of ARK the means necessary for ensuring of work of public institutions, prosecuting subjects of innovative activity, a transfer of technologies and intellectual property, for financing of researches and development according to the solution of problems of agricultural production and technological re-equipment of the enterprises of agro-industrial complex.

Among the most important innovations of the APP Crimean institute introduced in agricultural production, the high-yielding grades of winter barley adapted for severe weather constraints of our zone. In 2008 introduction of grades of winter barley of the APP Crimean institute is carried out more than on 20 thousand hectares, including in the Kherson, Nikolaev, Zaporozhye and Kirovograd areas. A condition of crops today good also it is possible to hope that the area of distribution of these grades will be expanded, thanks to their efficiency and high winter hardiness.

Successfully scientific development Economic efficiency of development of dairy cattle breeding of the AR Crimea steppe zone in the conditions of an intensification of a lugopastbishchny kormoproizvodstvo takes root also. The effective direction of a kormoproizvodstvo which allowed in a pilot farm of institute to increase quantity and quality of forages is found and to reduce cost of production of milk by 27 %.

Development approbation on improvement of system of production and preparation of forages in the conditions of limited material support in a base economy "Bolshevik" of the Krasnogvardeysky area allowed to receive on the average from one cow of 3500 kg of milk at prime cost of one centner of milk of 120 hryvnias.

Scientists of the Crimea offer zone resource-saving technologies of cultivation of the main crops which are grown up in the Crimea, means of protection of plants including biological that is very important for our region being a resort zone.

Scientific and consulting and information support of agroformations of the region is carried out by carrying out scientific and practical conferences, seminars, meetings, days of a field, round tables, the organization of exhibitions, performances on television. In the newspaper Agromir. Problems and decisions are published articles and recommendations of scientists about topical issues.

In 2008 at the initiative of the Ministry of an agrarian policy of AR Crimea scientific institutions of the Center carried out the analysis of a condition of agricultural branches of the Krasnoperekopsky area therefore the priority directions of development of agrarian branch of economy of the area were defined and the business plan of branch of sheep breeding is developed.

The center of scientific providing APP AR Crimea took active part in the international innovative forum the Future of the Crimea where presented an exhibition of innovative production, offered the innovative projects developed by establishments, took part in meetings of round tables.

Refresher courses of the main agriculturists and aprobator of seed-growing farms and regional seed inspections are annually carried out. In 2007 12 newsletters and 8 collections of recommendations about the main works which are carried out in agroindustrial production were published.

The second year institute signs contracts on scientific support of branches of APP of the Krasnogvardeysky area according to which scientists participate in all regional meetings and conferences, publish the bulletin of scientific development of institute and the recommendation in the quantity necessary for regional management of agroindustrial development. Scientists of institute participate in inspection of crops with providing recommendations about each concrete field, carry out consultations of departure to an economy or in a telephone mode, carry out marketing services for the area enterprises.

Fruitfully scientists in Razdolnensky and Nizhnegorsky areas work, the development program is developed for the Belogorsky area, contracts are signed with the enterprises of Saksky and Simferopol areas.

In information support of agroindustrial production of the region constantly operating demonstration ranges where grades and hybrids of the main winter and summer crops, and also technologies of their cultivation are presented have importance. Such ranges at the APP ten Crimean institute.

The center of scientific providing APP AR Crimea carries out the work with direct support from power structures of AR Crimea. For the last year four scientific and practical conferences with direct participation of Council of ministers of AR Crimea where questions of scientific providing agricultural industry of the region as a whole and its separate branches were considered were carried out.

By institute for 2007 it is earned 1mln. 440 thousand UAH, including, are received from realization of innovative production – 247 thousand UAH. and from scientific activity – 55 thousand hryvnias. It allowed to improve material base of institute considerably.

Director of National institute of grapes and UAAN Magarach wine, corresponding member of UAAN, academician of the International academy of wine growing and winemaking (Moscow), doctor of agricultural sciences And. The m of Avidzba devoted the performance to perspective scientific achievements of institute and their introduction at the vinogrado-wine-making enterprises of the Crimea.

To satisfy needs of the population of Ukraine for wine-making production and table grapes it is necessary to make annually in the Crimea about 300 thousand tons of grapes, reported the acting. It is possible only at creation of highly productive plantings, rational use of resources, introduction of modern technologies. All this also is provided in in common developed by grapes and Magarach wine Institute and winemaking and wine growing Institute of Tairov to a long-term state program of development of wine growing and winemaking.

Our institute offers for introduction of 26 new grades of grapes of own selection, being characterized the increased stability to diseases. Now their plantings occupy the space about 1000 hectares, most of all them in NPAO "Massandra", JSC Starokrymsky, AF "Foothills", AF "Gardener", AF "May Day".

The institute selects grades for all zones of the Crimean wine growing: for the steppe Crimea – cold-resistant, different an intensive sakharonakopleniye: Krasen, Pamyati Golodrigi, Alminsky; for the foothill and seaside zone specializing on production of table wines and sparkling wine materials – Tsitronny Magaracha, Danko; for the Southern coast of the Crimea – grades of clonal selection from the sortiment of grapes created here: Bordeaux, Gviyena, Chorn Opian, Antelikon. New table grades Oat-flakes, Yalta seedless, Assol, are recommended to Atlant for introduction in all zones of the Crimea.

Introduction of new grades is promoted by cooperation with the Crimean farms: JSC Kachinsky +, KFH "Nectarine", AF "Ariya-N" and AF "Magarach".

The legislative and legal base is developed for the solution of one of the main problems of branch – productions of the certificated revitalized landing material with the assistance of Magarach Institute, and since 2004 in common with experts of the Crimean farms "Emerald", "Magarach", "Kachinsky" is conducted work on creation of initial uterine plantings for production of the certificated landing material.

The advanced system of actions for protection of vineyards against wreckers and the diseases, allowing to reduce quantity of applied means of protection of plants approximately for 30 % without decrease in efficiency of protective measures takes root also.

The methodical base of conducting monitoring behind a water condition of plants too is developed at our institute. For maintaining it we offer a method of the chamber of the pressure, based on measurement of water potentials of leaves.

It is developed, and by institute, the grinder of scraps of grapevine IV-1,5 subsequently is finished. With its help it is possible to collect, crush and scatter grapevine scraps on row-spacings of vineyards.

On Yalta cold-storage facility introduce a way of long storage of table grapes in the frozen look on the technology developed by institute. We created methodical base, systems and control methods behind quality of raw materials, the auxiliary materials, finished product and production process at preparation of grape wines of all types are developed. Introduction of this development allows to supervise effectively processes of production of wines at all stages, to reveal counterfeits.

To increase production of high-quality cognacs, institute First-born Magaracha, the Spartan deduced grades which with success can be used in cognac production – Podarok Magaracha. But for a reconstruction of own source of raw materials for cognac production in the Crimea it is necessary to put not less than 3 thousand hectares of vineyards of a certain sortiment. And as to technology, the institute together with other organizations and the branch enterprises completely overworked and prepared a package of the technological documentation focused in particular and on the new modern equipment.

That problems of production of sparkling wines were successfully solved, scientists of "Magaracha" carried out a technological appraisal of new domestic and import preparations for processing of sparkling wine materials from new grades of grapes of own selection for definition of possibility of their use for production of sparkling wines. Wine materials for sparkling wines select on the basis of studying of their physical and chemical indicators, the new method of identification of sparkling wines, technology of their gassing with use of liquid dioxide of carbon are developed.

Magarach offers the wine-making enterprises new processing equipment: installations for suspension preparation betonita in the cold way, for line stabilization of wines against crystal pomutneniye and a crystallizer of periodic action for processing of wines by cold, tubular heatexchange devices of type A pipe in a pipe, electropumps for transfer of a mash and wine materials, installation for dispensing of components in a stream. The new production technology of organic and organo-mineral fertilizers from a waste wine-making and other productions is developed.

Stated in NPAO "Massandra" developed for head winery the ecological passport organizational and technical solutions allow to reduce substantially an adverse effect of production on environment and systematically to improve its condition. The institute can develop such passports and for other vinogrado-wine-making enterprises.

 In the Crimea development of institute – a food nonalcoholic concentrate of polyphenols of grapes Enoant made of secondary raw materials of winemaking is widely known, many brands of the wines produced on technological instructions "Magaracha" are known also. The institute succeeds and in the edition of scientific and technical literature in the actual directions of vinogrado-wine-making branch. Realization of its scientific development will allow to solve AR Crimea vinogrado-wine-making complex problems really.

Addressing to participants of conference, N. P. Kolisnichenko stopped on the problems connected with development by landowners of the Crimea of the state grants, directed on development of agricultural production. He emphasized that the science should help peasants with it and noted

 positive role in distribution of the best practices, promotion of innovations and progressive technologies of the newspaper Agromir. Problems and decisions.

The regional representative of Krymagromarketing firm, the area manager of the investment Kraevid-invest program, to. page – x. N of the River E. Zilbervarg, and also other acting paid attention gathered that this spring in the soil enough moisture collected and now it is important not to miss time, to protect plants which have roughly got under way in growth from diseases and wreckers.

Interesting novelty – granules which accumulate in itself moisture and on requirement give it to plants, operating, thus, for many years, the representative of state of emergency of "Teravit" from the Kirovograd area T.A.Yaroshchuk showed. According to experts, behind such development – the future, in particular for our droughty zone of risky agriculture.

Important for development of agricultural production of a subject the director of the Crimean experimental station of gardening A.I.Sotnik, the director of the Crimean scientific-research center of Institute of hydraulic engineering and land improvement of UAAN of V.I.Lyashevsky, the director of the Southern branch of institute of agricultural microbiology of UAAN T. N. Melnichuk, the deputy director of Institute efiromaslichny and UAAN herbs V.N.Shlyapnikov, the director of experimental station of vegetable growing of the APP UAAN Crimean institute shined in the performances And. Century of Hrapaty, head of laboratory of animal husbandry KIAPP of UAAN P. S. Ostapchuk, director of the Crimean experimental station of National scientific center Institute of experimental and clinical veterinary medicine A.D. Boldyrev, director of the Crimean state agrarian educational advice center N. M. Nagaynik, vice rector of the Southern branch of National agrouniversity Crimean state agrotechnological university of NAU of N of. Autumn, head of SPK "Bolshevik" of the Krasnogvardeysky area V.A.Radchenko, senior research associate of scientific providing and transfer of innovations of UAAN of Y.M. Nosenko.

V. PASHCHENKO,

leading expert KGAUKC