Biological activity of the soil and productivity of agricultural cultures in the south of Ukraine

Value of the earth is defined by its fertility, i.e. with ability to satisfy potrebnoti plants in nutrients, air, water, heat, biological activity to provide a crop of agricultural cultures. And it is reached by optimization of soil conditions when all complex of agrotechnical, agrochemical and biological actions is maintained.
Decrease in productivity grain and their qualities is caused by decrease in biological activity of the soil which occurred because of intensive application of means of chemicalixation.
The main effort of farmers as scientists of institute CINAO recommend and NPP Ecoservice should be directed on restoration of biological activity of the soil at the expense of entering into it biologically active substances (energenov), the complex water-soluble and biological fertilizers received on the basis of bacteria.
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           Value of the earth as the main means of agricultural production, is defined by its fertility, that is ability to satisfy need of plants for nutrients, air, water, heat to provide with biological activity a crop of crops. And it is reached by optimization of soil conditions when all complex of agrotechnical, agrochemical and biological actions is maintained.

           Optimization of soil conditions promotes elimination of activity of microorganisms under the influence of which there is a mineralization of fossils and a gumusoobrazovaniye, destruction of primary and secondary minerals of pochvoobrazuyushchy breeds and extraction from them necessary for plants and soil microorganisms of nutritious elements, microbic linkage of molecular nitrogen of the atmosphere by azotfiksator. Microorganisms possess a leading role in nitrogen and sulfur circulation, in transfer of insoluble phosphates and other nutritious elements to forms available to plants, in phosphorus transfer from organic substances in a water-soluble form.

           Under the influence of microbes and animals of soil community there is a reproduction of a fertile soil – humus replenishment.

           World and domestic experience testifies that high and steady efficiency of agriculture is possible only by optimization of soil conditions, and violation of the last leads to decrease in productivity of crops, production deterioration. The central institute on agrochemical service of agricultural industry (CINAO) carried out the analysis of productivity of winter wheat in the south of Ukraine (from 1966 to 1995) (see tab. 1)

           Researches showed that optimization of soil conditions (observance of crop rotations, an agrotechnology, application of fertilizers and so forth) promoted increase in productivity and grain improvement of quality. However, from 1981-1985 to 1995 productivity of winter wheat and its quality decreased. One of the main reasons was decrease in biological activity of the soil (biological activity is defined by an ammonifikatsiya and nitrification method). Decrease in biological activity of the soil occurred because of intensive application of means of chemicalixation (fertilizers, pesticides, etc.), violations of crop rotations, deteriorations of structure of the soil, shortage of V/of organic fertilizers and sideratny crops and so forth.

           In connection with the economic situation which has developed in recent years in agricultural industry, shortage of organic fertilizers, the main effort of farmers should be directed on earth revival, restoration of biological activity of the soil at the expense of entering into it biologically active substances (energenov), the complex water-soluble and biological fertilizers received on the basis of bacteria.

           Researches (1985-1992) spent in the Crimea on application of bacterial fertilizers – fosforobakterina (which operating time was carried out in many regions of area), showed high efficiency in comparison with application of mineral phosphoric fertilizers. It is established that fosforobakterin it is capable to provide with plant phosphorus during vegetation (to save up in the soil to 30-60 kg/hectares of usvoyaemy phosphorus). Application in 2000-2005 fosforobakterina in farms of Razdolnensky, May Day, Krasnoperekopsky areas allowed to eliminate deficiency of phosphorus in the soil and.sootvetstvenno, to give increases of a crop of winter wheat and to increase its quality.

           Under favorable soil conditions (organic chemistry existence) under the influence of microorganisms there is a mineralization of organic substances, and the part of primary organic substance turns into special group of high-molecular connections – specific gumusovy substances – energeny. However, because of insufficient quantity of organic chemistry and microorganisms in soils aren’t created in enough energeny. Institute CINAO and NPP Ecoservice developed technology of receiving energenov on the special patented technology.

           The main advantage energenov before other fertilizers, besides the content of nitrogenous substances, is:

– the highest content of biologically active substances;

– existence legkousvoyaemy plants of microcells in a helatny form;

– high solubility and low maintenance of a ballast.

           Processing of seeds energenami increases a crop of crops by 20-40 %, increases stability of plants to frosts, a drought and other adverse factors.

           Application energenov repeatedly pays off increase of ecological purity, nutritional value and productivity of crops. Introduction energenov to 25 kg/hectares promotes increase of fertility of soils, will neutralize toxic action of a zasoleniye of the soil at 6-10 time exceeding norm. Energena (0,005 – 0,009 % on of century) carry out all functions which carry out gumusovy substances in the soil in nutritious solution of the artificial environment.

           NPP Ecoservice together with TSINAO’S Saksky department carried out production researches of efficiency energena in the conditions of the Crimea and Krasnodar Krai on processing of seeds of wheat before sowing in a lateral mix with fungitsidy – a protravitel and processing of crops of wheat together with herbicide on the area 20ga. Norm of processing 0,15kg energena (100 % of of century) on one ton of seeds (4ga crops) and 20g on hectare at foliarny processing. At cost energena in 200grn for 1kg expenses in terms of money made 15,5úÓ¡/hectare. In the field without application energena productivity made 23,1 c/hectares with a gluten of 19 %, and when processing energeny productivity made – 31,3µ/hectare with a gluten of 23 %. Thus expenses on energeny in 15,5úÓ¡/hectare repeatedly paid off in the same year.

           In Kursk and Belgorod areas at joint application energena and herbicides the norm of the last was reduced on a third without efficiency change. Sharing energenov with means of protection of plants promoted essential economy of means at the expense of reduction of norm of an expense and increase of efficiency of preparations.

           Our supervision in the Crimea and in Krasnodar Krai showed that, since second or third of application energena, the soil structure improves, its ecological purity and fertility, the connected agrochemicals and food elements raise (for example, phosphorus) again become available to the plants, harmful impurity will be neutralized, activity of useful microorganisms becomes more active, and formation of nitrates decreases for 50 and more percent.

Table 1

Influence of mineral fertilizers on productivity and quality of the winter wheat which is grown up in the south of Ukraine

Table 2

Economic efficiency fosforobakterina on crops of winter wheat, JSC Sovetskaya Ukraina

The Saksky district for 1990-1992

Note: 1. the inokulyatsiya of seeds fosforobakteriny 5½/t was carried out; 2. for descriptive reasons grain cost in rubles, are transferred to hryvnias.

V. Sychev, doctor agricultural. sciences, director CINAO, A.Vorobjev, candidate agricultural. sciences, senior research associate of Saksky department CINAO, A.Repetsky, candidate agricultural. sciences, agriculturist of JSC Bakalsky.