In this article it is told about economic value of a calendula. For a long time it used not only in the medical purposes, but also in cookery. Now the calendula enters into ten the cultures most cultivated in Europe.
The calendula was a widespread garden plant not only in continental Mediterranean Europe, but also in England. William Shakespeare in 1611 wrote in "Winter’s Tale": Here to you flowers: lavender, mint, marjoram. The calendula what to sleep lays down together with the sun and with it rises.
Calendula used not only in the medical purposes, but also in cookery. It appreciated aroma and color and put in the most various dishes. Long time the calendula was considered as spice for poor. The matter is that the real spices were brought from overseas and cost very expensively. The calendula was public and perfectly tinted dishes in yellow and orange colors, replacing a saffron. Besides, it gave to a dish unique tart smack that was very much appreciated not only poor, but also rich gourmets. In the Middle Ages a calendula used as vegetable. In England, for example, it usually sowed with spinach and often prepared in one pan. The cookbook of times of the queen of England Elizabeth recommended to add by all means a calendula in a preparation time of a stewed lark or a sparrow. John Gerard wrote that in the Netherlands any good cook won’t cook some soup, without having added in it calendula petals. With a calendula cooked even porridge, there were puddings from a calendula, vareniki with a calendula, wine from a calendula.
Except decorative and medical, the calendula had also other value: dry yazychkovy a flower of a calendula there were on podmes to a saffron as spices and for colourings of various matters to yellow color. Peasants sometimes tinted a marigold oil.
In the middle of XIXveka the flower and leaves of a calendula were willingly appointed by doctors, however to the end of the century the official medicine practically forgets about a marigold. There is the general decline of interest to herbs which start to be forced out from medicine by chemical means.
At the same time, at the beginning of XXveka, along with official, the medicine extends alternative. On Russian books of foreign authors on homeopathy and astrological medicine are translated and published. In A house lechebnik on homeopathy doctor Richard Yuz of 1895 indications to application of a homeopathic medicine "calendula" are described. Interest to a calendula as to ranozazhivlyayushchy and to a disinfectant, it is especially shown in days of the Second World War.
In Europe and other regions of the world in the second half of XXveka as increase of interest to herbs is observed. The increase in the areas of cultivation under medicinal cultures became possible thanks to mechanization of the majority of processes of cultivation; at a calendula, in particular, mechanization of the most labor-intensive process – cleaning of medicinal raw materials (inflorescences).
Increase of demand reflects a world tendency to increase in number of medicinal and cosmetic preparations in a vegetative basis. On the basis of a calendula various ointments, tablets, creams, lotions, shampoos, balms, toothpastes and even lipstick now are issued.
The national sign which exists and today testifies to a wide circulation of a calendula: Calendula flowers since morning are usually open, but if were closed and as though withered – by a rain.
Now the calendula enters into ten the herbs most cultivated in Europe. According to statistical data, the calendula medicinal on popularity and width of use takes the second place and concedes only to a camomile, having outstripped thus a sage, valerianu, a St. John’s Wort and many other known herbs.
(On materials of Internet editions).