In this article it is a question of new technologies of an agrotechnology of cultivation of fruit semechkovy crops.
Modern domestic gardening develops taking into account requirements of time, changes in the social and economic sphere and forms of ownership. In the technological plan creation of skoroplodny, high-yielding plantings with the increased density of placement of trees and competitive on a complex of indicators production became the priority direction today.
In this context scientists of department of an agrotechnology of station solve many questions: development of separate processing methods, improvement of systems of formation and scraps of trees of an apple-tree and a pear, optimization of density of landing, working off of new technologies of creation of high-intensity garden designs for cultivation in gardening agoformirovaniye of different forms of ownership.
Long-term researches of scientists and wide practical experience of cultivation of an apple-tree in the Crimea testifies that from all types of gardens which were offered the production, the shpalerno-dwarfish had the greatest efficiency. In gardening farms of the Bakhchsarai, Krasnogvardeysky, Nizhnegorsky, Simferopol areas where adequately adhered to the production requirements shown to cultivation of this garden culture, productivity of gardens of this kind remained at level of 30 t/hectares of high-quality fruits.
Improvement of technology of cultivation of an apple-tree went in the direction of reduction of labor costs on formation and to a scrap, creation of forms of krone more available and convenient in operation. So, in replacements of palmetny system of formation freely growing vertical form of trees which allowed to reduce costs of work of its creation and the subsequent leaving by 30-40 % was fulfilled and offered.
By us it was established that at increase of density of landing to 2500 trees on 1 hectare productivity growth for the first 5 years of fructification on the average on 14, and the next 6 years – on 8 t/hectares in comparison with placement of the 833rd village/hectare was provided.
Possibility of reduction of the area of a food of trees at formation a spindle of visible kroner – a positive factor of a skoroplodnost and fructification as a whole.
To leave from a high material capacity at a laying of a dwarfish garden, our department developed technology of self-basic cultivation of slaborosly trees at the heart of which the way of the landing which has received the name a standard pyramid lies. This technology excludes the device of any support at garden creation.
On long-term experimental data, average productivity of grades of an apple-tree of the Florin and the Champion in plantings of this type made respectively 29 and 27 t/hectares, and the maximum indicators reached 58 and 35 t/hectares.
The offered way of landing and cultivation provides creation of a strong biological design from three plants which join in commodity fructification from second year after landing and for 2-3 years reach productivity of 30-40 t/hectares depending on a grade.
At the first stage for an apple-tree, and subsequently and for a pear on a slaborosly stock features of their cultivation in the form of a standard pyramid were fulfilled.
Providing the maximum skoroplodnost used sotov at the expense of processing methods of cultivation and their high efficiency from first years of fructification provide reduction of the period of operation of a garden on slaborosly stocks till 12-14 years. Optimum conditions for cultivation of plantings in a mode of a short cycle of operation are thus created. Such technological and time mode is dictated by need of more operative updating of a sortiment and application of advanced or new receptions of cultivation which allow to realize in the fullest measure potential of efficiency and grades, and plantings as a whole.
For the Crimea, with its variety of soil conditions and different degree of their suitability for cultivation of high-intensity gardens on slaborosly stocks doesn’t lose the urgency a question of creation of plantings of an apple-tree on the srednerosly stocks which most known representative is MM106.
For gardens of this kind we fulfilled and optimized schemes of placement of trees taking into account force of growth of a sorto-podvoyny combination, system of formation of kroner which allow from the fourth, and at cultivation of some grades and from third year to receive good return from a garden.
Grades of an apple-tree which are used in different types of modern plantings, as a rule, have high indicators of productivity and marketability of fruits, but not all from them are rather technological in respect of creation of this or that form of krone and ensuring efficiency of leaving on it in garden operation.
For the most typical representatives of different groups of the grades making an introduction, in particular, immune to parshe: Grinslivz, the Florin, Dzhonafri on stock MM106 department studied features of their growth and fructification and the complex of agroreceptions on providing a skoroplodnost, compactness of krone and a fructification regularity is fulfilled. In particular, it is possible to note that for a grade Grinslivz of the most acceptable there was a veretenovidny krone with the relevant system scraps. For Dzhonafri’s grade which is characterized by weak pobegoproizvoditelny ability and insufficiently good filling of krone with acquiring wood, the deviation to the horizontal provision of the main branches making the bottom circle with the subsequent cyclic change of fruit branches became positive reception.
Research work on technological questions of cultivation of a pear is directed on creation of high-intensity plantings on slaborosly vegetative and seed stocks with the maximum reduction of the unproductive period, compact kroner, regulation of corners of an otkhozhdeniye of the main branches and rational schemes of placement.
At cultivation on an ayvovy stock the developed complex of receptions provided the introduction in fructification of a pear of a grade Taurian for the third year after landing: at placement of the 1250th village/hectare (4×2 m) and formation of an uploshchenny spindle it was received 10, and from a grade tree Bør Bosk – 8 t/hectares of fruits. For the fifth year indicators increased to 20 t/hectares, and in the current year it is supposed to receive 40-45 t/hectares.
Along with traditional systems of cultivation of a pear possibility of creation of slaborosly and skoroplodny plantings in shape a standard pyramid is studied. The first years of researches showed that when using skoroplodny umerennorastushchy grades possibly reduction of the unproductive period till 1 year and posleduyushchiy speeding up of generativny processes.
So, in grade plantings Taurian for the 2nd year after landing about 3 kg from one pyramid or 4,3 t/hectares in terms of 1 hectare were received. For the fourth year productivity reached 20 t/hectares.
L.Tankevich, head of department of an agrotechnology of the Crimean experimental station of gardening, candidate of agricultural sciences.