In article the situation, developed in a number of gardening farms of the Crimea is shown this winter. Areas, the most injured from a sharp cold snap in February of the current year are listed. It is noted that resist to extreme weather events of planting which grow up at high level of an agrotechnology much better.
After adverse on the majority of indicators of gardening of 2006 gardeners have the right were to count on moral and material compensation from the fruit plantings in 2007. For this purpose there were bases: the trees of the semechkovy breeds which have not been burdened by big loading by fruits, it is active vegetirovali, stuffing up a fruit kidney on the crop’s eve of next year. Plantings of kostochkovy breeds partially or completely restored the productive potential, trees differed quite good development of a year gain and formation of generativny educations though rather serious consequences of frosty winter of 2005-2006 in some cases took place.
Winter it was possible to designate last months of the last calendar winter only conditionally. Separate days with short-term fall of air temperature to negative values and prevalence of typical "November" weather caused premature transition of trees, first of all, the majority of kostochkovy breeds of the period deep in a condition of the compelled rest at which positive daily average temperatures inevitably provoke preparation of plants for vegetation, essentially reducing thus protective functions of plodoobrazuyushchy wood and fruit kidneys in relation to returnable colds. For example, if in the conditions of rather equal temperature background of winter with prevalence of negative temperatures fruit kidneys of a peach and an apricot can sustain a frost to a minus 240S, at unstable weather and the temperatures close to 00S frost resistance of plants to the termination of winter considerably decreases also the critical there can already be frosts with temperature a minus 16-180C.
Such situation developed this winter in a number of gardening farms of the Crimea. According to a meteopost of the Crimean experimental station of gardening the daily average temperature of January made +3,80S at average long-term norm a minus 0,30. The number of days with temperature is higher 50dostiglo 13, and with temperature below 00S didn’t exceed 5. weather conditions of the first two decades of February also differed not extreme differences of temperatures that promoted activization of activity not only trees of kostochkovy ranotsvetushchy breeds, but also pears, and in some cases and separate grades of an apple-tree.
The sharp cold snap which came to the Crimea during the period from February 24 to February 27, once again "corrected" a potential crop of fruit crops in the majority of gardening areas.
Nizhnegorsky, Krasnogvardeysky, Dzhankoysky, Saksky and Simferopol areas where essential damages are noted at a peach, an apricot, a cherry plum appeared the most injured.
damage rates of podovy cultures of frosts during the period from February 24 to February 27, 2007 in the AR Crimea agroindustrial enterprises
Being based on results of detailed anatomic and microbiological studying of fruit kidneys and fabrics in the samples provided by farms, it is possible to conclude, what even such, not the lowest for the Crimea temperatures (-17-220C) at the last stage of winter appeared critical for these breeds, and also in some cases for pear grades from the early beginning of vegetation. In a cut of kostochkovy cultures transferred frosts sweet cherry and plum trees better and the hope of good flowering and fructification isn’t lost yet.
The analysis of the received vegetative and generativny samples allowed to establish that subject to influence of low temperatures there were even some grades of an apple-tree. So, in the samples delivered from Nizhnegorsky and Krasnogvardeysky areas, considerable injuries of fruit kidneys took place at grades Aydared, Dzhonagold, Wagner prize-winning (to 80 %). Golden Delishes, Simiren’s Rennet, Gloucester and some other grades at which partial injury of fruit kidneys and podpochkovy fabrics was noted slightly better resisted to low temperatures.
Unfortunately, many gardening farms didn’t provide a material for the analysis and research that didn’t allow to state the fullest assessment of current situation in areas, but as a whole there are bases to offer that if the weather extreme doesn’t repeat it is possible to count on satisfactory, and in separate microzones and good flowering of the most part of grades of semechkovy breeds, sweet cherries and plums.
Synthesis of data on frosty damages of trees for the last two winters testifies that resist to extreme weather events of planting which are grown up at high level of an agrotechnology much better. It both regular a scrap and water securities, both system of protective measures and some other important elements of technologies which promote maintenance of a good physiological condition of trees and increase their stability to natural anomalies. Absence of due care of a garden, defeat of trees by the Californian shchitovka, and pears – a deaf adder cause death not only fruit educations, but also dying off of a skeletal part of trees about what gardeners need to remember and not to allow the similar phenomena in the gardens.
And. SOTNIK, the director of the Crimean experimental station of gardening, R. BABIN, the deputy director on scientific work, the candidate of agricultural sciences, L. TANKEVICH, manager. department of technologies of cultivation, storage and processing of fruits, candidate of agricultural sciences.