In article recommendations about preparation of autotractor equipment to work in winter conditions and to its service during this period are made.
Operability of autotractor equipment can be provided in the winter only in case of performance of certain rules of its preparation for work and service. To work in the winter at autotractor equipment specially trained machine operators and drivers should.
The thermal mode of engines, irrespective of loading, should be finished to optimum values (85 … 95˚S) at temperature of air lower a minus 10˚S. Therefore engines are necessary for warming covers. That the cover didn’t become wet, it cover with leatherette or an oilcloth. Filters of systems of greasing and a food too need to be warmed special covers. In this case duration of warming up of the engine after start-up is reduced three times – four times, and speed of cooling his ambassador of a stop decreases in 1,5-2 times.
It is necessary to warm a cabin, carefully to eliminate all thinnesses.
The windshield of a cabin should have the adaptation preventing freezing and a zaledeneniye.
During preparation of equipment for winter operation carry out seasonal maintenance.
Power supply system
Operating conditions of a power supply system at minus temperatures becomes complicated increase in viscosity of fuel that worsens its progonnost (especially via the filter of thin cleaning), quality of dispersion. Therefore it is necessary to fill system with winter brands of diesel fuel. For high-speed diesel engines make such brands of diesel fuel:
L – summer, it is recommended to use at air temperature not below a minus 5˚S.
Z–winter, it is recommended at air temperature not below a minus 15˚S.
What to do if sharply struck frosts, and stocks of winter fuel aren’t present. In this case it is possible to use specially depressorny (antigelevy) additives and to dilute diesel fuel with fuels with considerably best low-temperature properties – aviation kerosene and gasoline.
Depressornye additives reduce temperature of hardening and limiting temperature of hardening and limiting temperature of a filtrovannost of diesel fuels. The temperature of introduction of additives should approximately on 10˚S be higher than turbidity temperature, and is even more effective if to warm up fuel to temperature 40˚S.
Preparation of system provides: replacement of engine oil in an engine case on winter classes, warmings of filters and oil pipelines, casing installation under the pallet, shutdown (in case of need) an oil radiator.
In the winter it is necessary to apply engine oils in which the temperature of hardening should be on 10. 20˚S below the minimum temperature of air. It oils of a class 8 and all-weather zagushchenny oils of classes: 43/8, 53/10 or 10/20, 15/30.
Preparation for work of system of cooling provides: washing, check of tightness and elimination of malfunctions, cleaning of a radiator and drain cranes, adjustment of a tension of belts of the fan.
Considering that in the majority of tractors of national production cooling liquid is water, it is necessary to remove a scum on walls of system of cooling which can lead to violation of thermal power setting during a cold time of year. Before washing of system of cooling it is necessary to remove the thermostat from the engine.
If in the engine there are no details from aluminum alloys, then for removal of a scum prepare such solution: water – 10l, caustic soda – 750g, kerosene – 250g; or on 10l waters – 1kg kaltsinirovanny soda, 0,5kg kerosene, it is possible to use 2 % solution of technical hydrochloric acid. Solution fill in in cooling system, start the engine and work under loading of 10-12 hours that the temperature of solution stayed in limits 90-95C, and then it merge.
At existence in the engine of aluminum details as liquid for washing use warmed up to 30 … 40˚S solution of dairy acid (on 5l waters – 1l 36 % – ache acids). It fill in in cooling system. After removal of carbon dioxide solution merge.
After washing of system of cooling wash out the steam-air valve and check operation of the thermostat, action of a shtorka or a jalousie. Fill system of cooling with low-freezing refrigerating liquids.
For maintenance of a normal temperature mode at air temperature a minus 20. 25˚S it is necessary to reduce a surface of cooling of a radiator approximately twice.
It is necessary to check serviceability of all power supply network, and then operability of modular units of electric equipment (the generator, a starter, the accumulator, etc.).
If necessary it is necessary to adjust a tension of klinoremenny transfer of the generator.
Start-up of the engine depends on serviceability of a starter and its actuator. After cleaning of a starter of external pollution it is necessary to check a condition of a collector and brushes. At existence on contacts of traces of a podgoraniye it is necessary to smooth out them a grinding skin or a file.
It is necessary to give special attention to storage batteries as in the majority engine start-up depends on their working capacity in the winter. They need to be charged completely. (G/cm3 at 15˚S) establish electrolit density depending on air temperature: at temperature the minus 20C-1,25 isn’t lower, and at temperature in limits a minus 20 … 30˚S – 1,27.
Application of fog lights facilitates management of the vehicle in a fog or at a heavy snowfall. Fog lights establish so that light radiated by them, was directed down, under a veil of a fog and could pass in its minimum thickness.
During a cold time of year it is necessary to fill hydraulic system with only winter classes of hydraulic oils (10, 15 mm2/with at temperature 40˚S).
The car with a hydraulic actuator needs to be started up in work under loading only after check of all its mechanisms idling. During a break in operation of cars it is necessary to turn on periodically power cylinders idling.
To load working hydrosystems it is recommended only when the working temperature of oil in system isn’t lower than 30 … 50˚S.
For ensuring reliable work of brakes with a hydraulic drive in the conditions of low temperatures brake liquid has good low-temperature properties. Such liquids now are: "Neva", "Tom’", "Dew" or "DOT-4 Dews".
Transmission and running system
Traction and coupling properties of autotractor means, their productivity, profitability durability considerably depend on work and a running gear which, in turn, depend on change of physical and chemical properties of transmission oils. Total losses of capacity considerably decrease throughout the first 1,5-2 business hours with an oil warming up (viscosity reduction) therefore in the winter recommend to use transmission oils of classes of viscosity 9 and 12.
Transmission and running gear even at short-term stops is quickly cooled, lubricant gets denser. To provide reliability of operation of superchargers, oil or greasing heat up to temperature 20 … 25˚S and grease modular units of autotractor equipment at once after its work.
Start-up and warming up of engines
In the conditions of low temperatures the main difficulties consist in engine start-up.
Start-up of the engine consists of such main stages: initial dispersal to starting frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft; rotation of a cranked shaft with approximately constant frequency before the first flashes in cylinders (scrolling); rotation of a cranked shaft with partial use of display capacity; transition to a mode of independent work; work in an idling mode.
In operating time in an idling mode frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft fluctuates in the narrow limits established by position of the handle of supply of fuel or a pedal of management of a butterfly valve.
Warming up of the engine is most rational for carrying out on average frequency of turns of a cranked shaft and more than 25 % from nominal with gradual its increase are higher under loading. The heated-up engine works with firmness and evenly. Exhaust smokeless, sound pure.
The problem of start-up of engines at low ambient temperatures now still completely isn’t solved. On old models of tractors machine operators warm up the engine hot water, for this purpose follows: to open drain cranes, to fill in in cooling system hot water (85 … 90˚S) after from cranes warm water will begin to flow to close them and in five minutes to start the engine. Some machine operators are rather afraid that from sharp difference of temperatures in a head and the block of cylinders cracks can be formed. It is established that no damages to the engine thus occur. Cracks in the majority are formed because of warming up by a blowtorch with further filling with water; engine overheatings with insufficient amount of liquid in system of cooling, start-up of the cold engine from a tow with a further flood in the hot engine of cold water. Certainly, it is most rational to apply a complex of means of engines providing reliable start-up (heated garages, high-quality winter fuel and the oils warming adaptations for warming up or warming up of the engine, special starting liquids and the adaptations, low freezing cooling liquids).
Features of maintenance
In a cold season it is necessary to give special attention to purification of fuel of water and mechanical impurity. Snow or water hit in fuel leads to a peremerzaniye toplivoprovodov during a car stop, to a primerzaniye of elements of the fuel pump, and at engine start-up – their breakage.
Upon termination of change or flight it is necessary to fill a fuel tank completely with fuel since at low temperature on its internal surface water is condensed and hoarfrost is formed. Thereof there are interruptions in supply of fuel, the engine starts to work is unstable or isn’t started.
In system of cooling to pay attention to level of cooling liquid, to be convinced that there are no podtekaniye in connections of rubber sleeves, a radiator, a head of the block and other places as because of sharp differences the density of connections can be broken.
During equipment operation in the winter it is necessary to watch closely devices of control of pressure in system of greasing and immediately to find out the reasons of its decrease below admissible level.
Features of management
Management of autotractor equipment has in the winter a certain specifics and demands from machine operators and drivers of special knowledge and skills. On a carriageway the ice crust - ice is often formed.
At careless and inept actions of the driver it is possible to move down after the journey. Are especially dangerous deep iced over a track.
On ice-covered and slippery roads it is impossible to brake, do sharply abrupt turns, it is better to move on low gears, without switching them. To avoid drift, it is recommended to reduce frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine and to turn a steering wheel towards drift.
At track laying vehicles in the winter sometimes weaken a tension of caterpillars for the best self-cleaning them from snow and reduction of probability of break. It is impossible to leave for the night a tractor with crude caterpillars from snow. To move on the snow-covered road it is better in the middle. Lifting overcome on transfer on which the vehicle can move.
During travel with a counter vehicle it is necessary to be especially careful, in advance to occupy on the road extreme right situation, having reduced thus speed of movement.
(On Propozits_ya magazine materials).