In article it is said that the irrigation is one of the most effective agrotechnical receptions, including in wine growing. On the other hand, absence of control of an irrigation, can lead and to sharply negative results. Scientists NIViV "Magarach" offer a number of methods of definition of the water status of vineyards. Also schemes are provided in the text and descriptions of these methods.
Equipment of vineyards by systems of a drop irrigation
Equipment of vineyards by systems of a drop irrigation
Soil and climatic resources of the South of Ukraine are very favorable for grapes cultivation. Potential crops thus can reach 300 c/hectares at annual norm of a precipitation of 800-850 mm. Meanwhile, a mid-annual precipitation of the specified region makes from 250 to 600 mm. In this regard the irrigation of vineyards of the South of Ukraine is the main resource of increase of their efficiency, and this agrotechnical reception can be considered, how strategically important element of technology of cultivation of grapes.
Frequent spring-and-summer droughts (over the last 5 years 3 years droughty: 2001, 2002 and 2005) substantially affect grapes crop. Lack of moisture during the aestivo-autumnal period promotes bad ripening of a rod and grapes plant in much bigger degree are damaged by frosts. Therefore now only across the Crimea expansion of systems of a drop irrigation is planned for squares of 2835 hectares that makes 47 % from the planned area of landing of grapes.
Thus, the irrigation is one of the most effective agrotechnical receptions allowing sharply to increase efficiency of plantings, to improve a condition of plants, and in some cases, in sharply droughty years, it is simple to rescue grapes.
Due to the improvement of a condition of plants and sharp increase in productivity at an irrigation of vineyards of the South of Ukraine to the 2nd – the 3rd time the wide circulation of systems of a local irrigation in wine growing is economically predetermined.
On the other hand, absence of control of an irrigation of vineyards can bring not only to positive, but also to sharply negative result. Excessive moistening can cause asphyxia of root system, zasoleny soils, an excessive zagushcheniye of krone, its bad airing, a zateneniye of clusters, development of mushroom diseases and, as a result, decrease in quality of a crop and unjustified costs of water.
Thus, the increase in a crop as a result of an irrigation puts a classical problem of observance of balance before the producer of grapes: crop size - quality of a crop.
Operational management an irrigation of vineyards on the basis of control of their water mode
This problem can be solved only by a way of an operational management a water mode of each concrete vineyard in an economy according to specially picked up modes of an irrigation. Such modes allowing at the minimum yield losses most to increase its quality on the basis of measurement of water potentials of leaves, are developed in NIViV "Magarach".
These modes of an irrigation are directed on:
1. Maintenance of a normal functional state of a young vineyard;
2. Receiving big crops;
3. Receiving high-quality crops for preparation of sweet wines;
4. Receiving high-quality crops for preparation of dry wines and sparkling wine materials;
5. Receiving high-quality crops and decrease in percent of defeat by mushroom diseases;
6. Receiving high-quality crops with the minimum losses of their quantity.
The listed modes of an irrigation can be carried to besstressovy strategy of an irrigation (1, 2 and 4), long-term stressful strategy of an irrigation (3) and irrigation strategy with short-term stressful influences (5 and 6). From them are allocated, as one of the best, the following modes of an irrigation (See drawing 1).
3 mode. The strategy based on long-term moderate stressful influence (pre-dawn values of water potentials of leaves to ‑0,5 MPas) for receiving parameters of quality of the crop corresponding to the most intensive sakharonakopleniye, formation of painting and phenolic substances. For years of researches on the average quality parameters in the conditions of YuBK made:
for a grade Muscat white
mass concentration of sugars – to 30,0 g/100 of cm3; mass concentration of titruyemy acids – 5,8 g/dm3; the content of phenolic substances – 360 mg/l; rN – 3,2.
Characteristic high-quality muscat aroma with honey and tsitronny tones is noted. Color – from dark-golden to amber.
for Pino’s grade fran
mass concentration of sugars – to 23,5 g/100 of cm3; mass concentration of titruyemy acids – 7,3 g/dm3; the content of painting substances – 63,3 mg/l; the content of phenolic substances – 250 mg/l; rN – 3,2.
Characteristic high-quality aroma is noted. Color saturated, pink.
4 mode. It is besstressovy strategy of an irrigation which assumes maintenance of pre-dawn values of water potentials of leaves at level of-0,2 MPas in a phase of flowering and to-0,3 MPas in a growth phase and maturing of berries. Also this strategy promotes formation of parameters of quality of the crop, high-quality sparkling wine materials corresponding to preparation and dry silent wines. For years of researches, on the average, quality parameters in the conditions of YuBK made:
mass concentration of sugars – 17,0-18,0 g/100 of cm3; mass concentration of titruyemy acids – 8,1-8,4 g/dm3; the content of phenolic substances – 190‑200 mg/l; rN – 3,1-3,2.
The received samples of wine possessed characteristic high-quality aroma and gentle taste.
6 mode. The strategy based on short-term stressful influence (pre-dawn values of water potentials of leaves in a growth phase of berries from-0,5 to-0,55 MPas). Results of application of this strategy are close to the results received at use 3 modes.
The irrigation mode with a short-term water stress depth to-0,5 MPas in a growth phase of the berries, allowing to receive a big crop with high quality and the minimum defeat by diseases, irrespective of a grade of a grape plant, is recognized as the best.
Economic effect only at the expense of quality improvement (at increase in mass concentration of sugars at 1 g/cm3) a crop makes 320 úÓ¡./hectare.
Equipment of vineyards by means of control of their water mode (pressure chamber, phytomonitor, system of soil monitoring)
Method of the chamber of pressure on the basis of measurement of water potentials of leaves.
Now the most objective and exact method of an assessment of the water status of plants is determination of water potential of leaves by means of the pressure chamber. The water potential is the thermodynamic, generalizing characteristic of the water status of plants and, in effect, can be considered as a measure of water deficiency. The chamber of pressure was designed and made specially for a grape plant (N.G.Nilov, V.V.Taranenko, laboratories of physiology and phytomonitoring NIViV of "Magarach", initiative development). The chamber is in working condition completely tight, the cylinder and gazoprovodyashchy tubes maintain pressure over 100 atm. (about 10 MPas). Measurements in case of work with a grape plant are carried out in a range from 0 to 20 atm (0 – 2 MPas). The safety valve doesn’t allow increase in pressure in the chamber and gazoprovodyashhixtrubkax over 20 atmospheres, automatically pitting gas.
(Sometimes small escape or a part of a cluster) place a leaf in the chamber, tightly screw up a cover and then gradually by means of a reducer increase pressure in the chamber before emergence of a droplet of ksilemny juice on a cut a leaf chereshka. At the moment of formation of a droplet the pressure size in the chamber, measured by a manometer is noted. This negative pressure is accepted to size of water potential of a leaf. Supervision by a zapoyavleniye of a droplet is easier than a message by means of a magnifying glass or a microscope. In work the mix from 90-95 % of nitrogen and 5-10 % of the compressed air is usually used.
On the basis of indications of values of water potentials of leaves at dawn it is possible to judge water deficiency of plants in connection with a lack of soil moisture of a zone of an arrangement of an active part of root system (according to Sleycher). This circumstance allows to use a plant, as a biosensor "measuring" full water capacity of the soil in a zone of an arrangement of an active part of root system.
Interpretation of values of the water potentials measured by means of the chamber of pressure
Communication between values of water potential of leaves and physiological reactions of a grape plant (it is constructed on the basis of literary data and own supervision)
Communication between values of water potential of leaves at dawn and humidity of the soil on depth 50 see, a grade the Muscat white, YuBK, the soil brown carbonate srednesuglinisty on elyuvo-slide-rocks of clay slates (R = 0.662, P> 95 %).
Because the measure of a water stress can be exact and is simply defined by means of the pressure chamber, the last becomes very convenient tool at the organization of service of monitoring and realization of various strategy of an irrigation of vineyards. The main lack of use of the chamber of pressure is small efficiency. Usually in vinogradarsky farms it is difficult to organize collection of information about water potential of leaves more often than once a week. However, for example, in the conditions of the Crimea when the irrigation of fructifying vineyards is carried out not often (on the average once to two – three weeks), use of the chamber of pressure is especially perspective as in this case for monitoring it is enough to define water potential of leaves one – two times a week. If there is a need to receive information more often – is necessary to establish phytomonitors.
Phytomonitoring methods are applied to continuous control of a water condition of plants. Phytomonitoring – continuous long-term tracking at the same time behind several processes in the whole plant and environment conditions by means of system of not damaging sensors. Still quite recently discussion of possibility of wide use of phytomonitors in domestic wine growing was represented by business far from reality because of their high cost (the phytomonitors of production most widespread in the world Israel cost about 20 thousand dollars USA). The same phytomonitors in the markets of Ukraine, completed with a set from 11 various sensors, in 2005 cost already about 10 thousand dollars USA. However, in recent years in the field of production of phytomonitors technological break was outlined. So, for the beginning of 2004. the prices for base models of phytomonitors of the Logrus company depending on a complete set made from 3 to 5 thousand dollars USA that allows to speak about possibility of their wide use.
Ampelomonitor the "Crimea-1" – the first domestic computerized system of phytomonitoring intended for continuous tracking as behind parameters of habitat of a grape plant (micro and phytoclimate, soil conditions), and behind characteristics of a functional condition of grapes by means of system of not damaging sensors. Ampelomonitor the "Crimea-1" can be used not only with a view of carrying out scientific researches, but also in vinogradarsky nurseries and on industrial vineyards. Operatively received information on a functional condition of plants and the environment of their dwelling allows to correct in time technologies of cultivation of plants, in particular to realize various strategy of an irrigation. Unlike many phytomonitors, an ampelomonitor the "Crimea-1" can be connected to system of automatic control by some engineering procedures, in particular an irrigation of vineyards. The system includes the block of collecting and information accumulation, the software, all necessary accessories for connection to the computer of the user and a set from 14 sensors. At will of the user it there can be following sensors in any combination:
Sensors of a condition of the environment:
humidity of the soil (substratum) temperature of the soil (substratum) air temperature humidity of air speed of a wind obluchennost
Sensors of a condition of a plant:
changes of diameter:
shtamba, escape, chereshka of a leaf, grebnenozhka
changes of the sizes (growth) of berry of measurement of thickness of a leaf of growth of an interstice of a difference of temperature of a leaf and air of temperature of a leaf of changes of speed of movement of a ksilemny stream in:
shtambe, escape, leaf chereshka, grebnenozhka
Systems of soil monitoring
The method of definition of a vlagoobespechennost of plants most widespread now in domestic wine growing on humidity of the soil is termostatnovesovy the method which is well shined in literature (for example, A.G.Amirdzhanov, 1992). The main lack of this method is that at its application the need for water of the plant which is defined at all only by humidity of the soil isn’t considered, but also substantially depends as on weather conditions, and a functional condition of the plant. This method doesn’t consider a depth of an active part of root system, is bulky and labor-consuming. The method isn’t operative, and therefore can’t be used in modern technologies for management of an irrigation.
Now the tool base (sensors and devices) is well developed for conducting monitoring of humidity of the soil that substantially facilitates work though doesn’t remove all basic shortcomings of a methodical approach of definition of a water mode of plants on humidity of the soil. Nevertheless, many sensors and systems of monitoring of humidity of the soil with success can be applied in modern information technologies of an irrigation. It is possible to carry to such devices ceramic tenziometry, various sensors of measurement of matrix potential the soils which are let out by many foreign firms. However they are very expensive to use in vinogradarsky farms of Ukraine.
From domestic sensors and systems of monitoring of humidity of the soil on vineyards it is possible to recommend sensors indicators and system of monitoring of humidity of the soil of the Crimean enterprise "Logrus". Cost of this system approximately 10 times less foreign analogs. It is the unique domestic system of monitoring of humidity of the soil.
The sensor and system of monitoring of change of humidity of the soil of "SMS Logrus-3" are developed at the Logrus enterprise Yalta for the purpose of supply of domestic plant growers by the inexpensive instrument of control of humidity of the soil in cases when high precision of measurement isn’t required (open soil: gardens, vineyards etc.). The principle of operation of the SMS‑Logrus‑3 sensor is based on dependence of an elektroprovodnost of the soil on degree of moisture content and in this sense SMS Logrus-3 sensors are similar widely known and to in large quantities let-out sensors of the companies RainBird, Watermark (USA) , etc., applied at carrying out this or that irrigating policy. It is necessary to note that the principles put in a basis of work of "SMS Logrus-3" and as original engineering and technological decisions, allowed to reduce sharply its prime cost and to increase accuracy of measurements.
N. NILOV, senior research associate, candidate of agricultural sciences, Village BEREZOVSKAYA, senior research associate, candidate of agricultural sciences, And. RYFF, Candidate of Biology, senior research associate, Y.IVANOV, technician NIViV "Magarach".