Prospects of kornesobstvenny wine growing in Ukraine

In article expediency of cultivation of grapes in kornesobstvenny culture in the south of Ukraine is noted.

Culture of kornesobstvenny grapes in Ukraine

By researches of scientists it is proved that in Ukraine is suitable for cultivation of grapes of a zone of risky agriculture where it is possible to receive high-quality production. The Steppe Crimea, northern regions of the Zaporozhye, Nikolaev and Kherson areas treat them. In these zones during the winter period temperature extrema to a minus 28°C are often noted that leads to damage of a place of soldering of a scion and a stock and the subsequent dumping of inoculations. It also caused expediency of cultivation here grapes in kornesobstvenny culture. On the other hand, it is zones of continuous infection with a phylloxera that assumes cultivation of fillokseroustoychivy grades of grapes. In the long term increase in gross vintage in Ukraine and expansion of a zone of industrial cultivation of this culture possibly only at the expense of expansion of the areas of vineyards in zones of risky wine growing.

At National institute of grapes and Magarach wine it is developed and the National program of improvement of a sortiment of grapes in Ukraine is realized. In its basis the selection Analogue program providing creation of new grades with group stability – analogs of the best Euroasian, but possessing the field increased stability to mushroom diseases, a phylloxera, a frost, with high ecological plasticity and stability hozyaystvenno valuable signs lies. Models of grades which include a necessary feature set were developed for the stage-by-stage solution of an objective. For selection on geterozisny effect 21 main signs of grapes were selected, 16 from which are used for selection of table grades, 16 – technical, 11 – are the general, and 5 – specific to grades of grapes of the various direction of use. According to the selection and genetic Analogue program technical grades are deduced: Riesling of Magaracha, Tavkveri Magaracha, Pamyati Golodrigi, and also grade with unique organoleptic properties: Tsitronny Magaracha, Alminsky. According to the program of selection of table grapes grades of various terms of maturing with group stability to mushroom diseases are deduced: Assol, Oat-flakes, Intervitis Magaracha, number of seedless grades: Yalta seedless and Pivdennoberezhny. As a result of selection work they were entered into the Register of grades of plants for industrial cultivation in Ukraine and are protected by patents of Ukraine.

For industrial cultivation the following grades of grapes with group stability to mushroom diseases, a frost and a phylloxera are recommended:

1) for production of white table wines and sparkling wine materials: Riesling of Magaracha, Tsitronny Magaracha, Aurora Magaracha, First-born Magaracha, Podarok Magaracha;

2) for production of red table wines: Danko, Krasen, Bordeaux, to Gviyen, Tavkveri Magaracha, Alminsky, Pamyati Golodrigi, Garnet Magaracha;

3) for production of high-quality strong and sweet wines: Tsitronny Magaracha, Danko, Alminsky, Krasen, Black Apiana, Anatelikon;

4) for fresh consumption: Oat-flakes, Yalta seedless, Pivdennoberezhny, Assol.

In Ukraine standards not only on a landing material, but also on kornesobstvenny vineyards in which all stages – from production of a landing material to a bookmark and operation of long-term grape plantings are regulated are accepted.

The laying of vineyards both their further efficiency and viability directly depend on quality of a landing material. In the National standard of Ukraine on the DSTU 4390:2005 landing material Saplings of grapes and chubuki a grapevine production of a landing material for a laying of vineyards is regulated by the ripened and vegetiruyushchy kornesobstvenny saplings. The ripened kornesobstvenny saplings should have 1-2 escapes in thickness not less than 5 mm with the ripened part not less than 150 mm. Length korneshtamba from a heel before the first escape – not less than 40 see. Roots should be located evenly around chubuka and have length not less than 10 cm and thickness at the basis not less than 2 mm. Vegetiruyushchiye saplings should have escape of green color in length not less than 20 cm, thickness not less than 3 mm. Roots – not less than five pieces located evenly on perimeter. Length of roots not less than 5 cm, thickness – not less than 2 mm.

In the same standard various categories of a landing material are described: "initial", "base", "certificated" and "standard". It is most valuable the landing material of category "initial" is. Without production of saplings of this category in Ukraine it is impossible to pass to production of the certificated landing material. Initial the landing material – is high-quality, free from viruses, phytoplasma and a bacterial cancer, and also from quarantine objects: golden pozhelteniye, bacterial withering. It should differ high level of typicalness and uniformity, absolute purity, according to agrobiochemical characteristics and a fytosanitory condition should answer conditions of a sanitary condition of this grade. Such material can be received only in the conditions of invitro with the subsequent adaptation and a dorashchivaniye on an artificial groundless substratum in the conditions of hydroponic gravel culture. It is connected with that at the soil there can be carriers of virus and other infection and it will be therefore impossible to receive the revitalized landing material of category "initial".

The hydroponic technology essentially softens negative influence of the droughty and hot summer periods, and also an adverse ratio of heat and moisture. In full advantages of hydroponic gravel culture can be realized at the correct selection of a substratum, working nutritious solution, light, thermal and water modes, and also systems of agrotechnical receptions on the care of plants. The optimum density of landing of plants in a hydroponics on adaptation makes 50 pieces/sq.m and the exit of standard saplings reaches to 86 %. The high exit of standard saplings is noted at such grades of selection NIViV of "Magarach", as Tsitronny Magaracha, Pamyati Golodrigi, First-born Magaracha and Krasen. The main factor of a variation of an exit of standard saplings (51 %) are climatic conditions of the period of vegetation (temperature and humidity of air which, in turn, define extent of development of mushroom diseases, etc.) . The share of influence of high-quality features on this indicator made 15,6 %. In this regard optimization of a mode of an irrigation, composition of nutritious solution and protection of plants against mushroom diseases serve as a considerable reserve of increase of efficiency of grape nursery on hydroponic gravel culture.

By the carried-out researches on cultivation of plants of grapes in hydroponic culture it is established that the substratum should carry out well nutritious solution to roots of plants and hold on the surface water, serve as a support for roots and provide good aeration of root system. It is necessary, that the substratum was chemically inert.

As some substrata can displace rN nutritious solution towards alkaline reaction, for prevention of negative influence of the alkaline environment on plants nutritious solution acidify sulfuric acid, supporting size rN within 6-7.

The best substratum for cultivation of saplings of grapes – fraction of a dioritovy crumb in the size of particles of 3-5 mm. Before loading of working fraction of a substratum on a bottom of a tray place fraction with the sizes of particles of 10-15 mm, carrying-out function of a drainage. Before loading in trays a working substratum clear of a dust through a sieve with cells of 2×2 mm, wash out water and stack in trays a layer 25-30 see. In NIViV "Magarach" apply hydroponic solution of variable structure. In this solution concentration macro – and microcells changes during vegetation. As a result of it in the first half of the vegetative period provides powerful growth and development of plants, and in the second – good ripening of a rod. Directly after landing of a plant water, and in five days pass to watering by nutritious solution. In May it is possible to be limited to four waterings in day, in June – 5-6. In the hottest days of July and August number of waterings increase till 8-10 in day. Duration of watering of 2-3 minutes. During the autumn period number of waterings gradually reduce and lead up before a leaf fall to once a day. Throughout the entire period of vegetation on saplings perform agrotechnical operations on leaving (a garter, a pasynkovaniye, stamping, protection against mushroom diseases). Vykopka and sorting them lead after the leaf fall termination. A substratum release from roots and other vegetative remains and carry out preparation of hydroponic channels for the next season.

For receiving the revitalized plants primary material select from previously otselektirovanny bushes. Rod prorashhivayut in vitro. For receiving aseptic culture as eksplant use tops of green escapes. As a substratum apply the nutrient mediums containing macro – and microcells, vitamins, sucrose, growth regulators, in the concentration adapted for grapes. Eksplanta land in the modified nutrient medium which structure for stimulation of a pobegoobrazovaniye includes a growth regulator 6-benzilaminopurin (BAP) into concentration of 1-2 mg/l. Cultivation carry out on light at the 16th hour photoperiod and temperature +27°C, when lighting the 1600th luxury. The plants received thus test in laboratory for existence, including, and in a lateral form, viruses, phytoplasmas and a bacterial cancer. In the absence of an infection further make multiple copies a simple cherenkovaniye, with the subsequent changes on the Wednesdays containing NUK. If results of analyses indicate existence of a virus infection, apply a technique of improvement of a material by means of combination of culture of meristems and thermotherapy.

The "initial" landing material is used only for a laying of matochnik for preservation and the accelerated reproduction of grades. Requirements to this type of plantings the following: matochnik of a stock and a category scion "initial" should be grown up on the soil where grapes didn’t grow not less than 10 years. Before landing soil check on existence of nematodes and the causative agent of a bacterial cancer. In case of identification of nematodes the soil process nematocidami. If in the soil the causative agent of a bacterial cancer is found, the laying of a vineyard on such site is inadmissible. In order to avoid secondary infection with viruses, a bacterial cancer and phytoplasma it is necessary that spatial isolation of matochnik of category "initial" from plantings of other categories made not less than 100 m.

Employees NIViV "Magarach" carried out works on a laying of matochnik of category "initial" grades Kober by 5BB to JSC Kachinsky +, and also certification of matochnik of podvoyny and privoyny grades in SPK "Emerald", SPK "Bolshevik", is conducted by KFH "Ariya-N".

 V.Volynki, head of department SGViA, doctor of agricultural sciences, N. Oleynikov, leading research associate, candidate of agricultural sciences, O.Boyko, senior research associate, candidate of agricultural sciences, I.Pavlov, research associate, candidate of agricultural sciences,  I.Vasylyk, research associate, candidate of agricultural sciences.