Marketing – the main link of strategy of development of the Crimean wine growing

In article the wine growing condition in the Crimea for this period is described. Problems of development of branch are given. Prospects of development of the Crimean wine growing and winemaking are specified.

           The accession of Ukraine to the WTO put agricultural producers of our country in very severe constraints of the competition, even in our domestic market which was earlier poorly – is poorly protected by custom duties, not to mention external on which nobody waited for us and doesn’t wait with open embraces. Realities are that what to break through on the European and world markets extremely difficult, even having very qualitative goods. Infinite "accelerations", "reorganizations", chronic on the village and not adequate forms of fight against alcoholism and alcoholism gave reforms there is no time one of the most effective branches of the Crimea – wine growing, to a catastrophic condition.  So, in 1985 g of the area of grape plantings in Ukraine made 209 thousand hectares, and in 2004 – only 97 thousand hectares, in 2007 - about 80 thousand hectares.

           There is an annual reduction of the areas and their aging in spite of the fact that in recent years in Ukraine more than 20000 hectares are planted. The tendency to reduction of the areas of vineyards isn’t stopped.

           In the Crimea the areas of vineyards for all history of development of wine growing reached the maximum in 1959 and made 152,5 thousand hectares, by 1985 they were cut by half, and today – make about 30 thousand hectares.

           To sad results the branch came also because anybody earlier seriously wasn’t engaged in questions of strategy of its development. Moreover, not everyone can far make definition, what such marketing?

           Essence of the concept of marketing define by popular expressions of type "Find requirements and satisfy them", "Make that can sell instead of trying to sell that already made". The concept of an intensification of commercial efforts argues that consumers won’t buy the goods of the producer in enough if it doesn’t put considerable efforts in the sale and stimulation sphere.

           Commercial efforts on sale – it is care of needs of the seller on transformation of its goods into cash, and marketing – care of satisfaction of needs of the client by means of the goods and a number of the factors connected with creation, delivery and,

at last, consumption of these goods. Marketing is business as a whole, considered from the point of view of resulting effect, i.e. from a position of the consumer.

           Before to develop strategy of development of branch of wine growing in conditions when our country already became the member of the WTO, it is necessary to carry out market researches and precisely to define that occurs in this market in the world, Europe and at our next rival neighbors: Turkey and Moldova.

           Since 1980 when the world areas, according to the International organization of wine growing and winemaking (OIV), under vineyards made 9,2 million hectares, they were steadily reduced, especially in the European Union. Now in the world over 60 million tons of grapes from the area more than 7,4 million hectares are made. At the same time, the areas of grapes of such countries as, for example, China increased during this time almost in 6 times. Continue to expand them in the Republic of South Africa, the USA, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. However to catch up with the European Union on production of grapes these countries couldn’t yet. The main producers of grapes in the world are: Italy, France, USA, Spain, Turkey, Argentina, Iran, China, Chile, Republic of South Africa. The most big crops receive in the USA – 145 c/hectares, in Germany – 129 c/hectares, in Italy – 110 c/hectares, in France – 81,5 c/hectares. About 83 % of grown-up grapes in the world are used for wine preparation, 12 % - on fresh consumption and 5 % – on dried grapes.

           In the world 1,2 million hectares of table grades of grapes are. Annual gross collecting makes about 7,75 million t., from them about 3,5 million t are the share of Europe., Asia – 1,7 million t., America – 1,5 million t., Africa – 0,6 million t., Oceania – 0,430 million, t. The leading countries in production of table grapes are: Italy – 1,2 million t, Turkey – 1,1 million, the USA – 0,6 million t, Spain – more than 0,4 million t., Chile – 0,35 million t., Greece – about 0,3 million t., Syria and Japan – on 0,28 million t., France – about 0,2 million t., it is told in the research FAS USDA.

           European Union – the producer second for the sizes and the consumer of table grapes (after China). 

One of the main problems of wine growing in EU is the so-called minifundizm, or, in other words, the small sizes of farms which are not allowing possibilities to introduce effective production technologies. But with the corresponding state support of farmers, it doesn’t stir Italy, Ispaniiigretsy to be among world leaders on production of grapes. Middle age of the manufacturing farmer of grapes in European Union makes 50-55 years while the youth doesn’t show special desire to master this profession. And this factor encourages our farmers among whom there are a lot of young and vigorous wishing to be engaged in production of table grapes.

           On development of sector of table grapes in EU foreign researchers see possibilities in stimulation of consumption of grapes in EU, increase in export at the new markets, in particular to Russia, Ukraine, more effective work of cooperatives, development of the research centers which will develop new grades. Their strategy is directed on active introduction on our market of the production.

           According to Turkish mass media, now in this country about 250 thousand hectares of vineyards are. Mid-annual production of grapes in this country reaches 3,6 million tons, thus Turkey is one of the world’s largest producers of table grapes. Ukraine annually makes about 45 thousand tons of table grapes. It is necessary to note that only for August-October, 2007 the same quantity of table grapes was imported to Ukraine from Turkey approximately. We already lose the market and we support, thus, the Turkish producer.

           The council of ministers concerning agricultural industry and fishery of European Union at meeting 2007 reached on December 19 a compromise concerning reforming of the market of wine. The offered reform should come into force since August, 2008. Ministers agreed that will stimulate a raskorchevka of vineyards of the least competitive grades on 175 thousand hectares instead of hectares offered before 400 thousand. Besides, the compromise solution provides gradual folding till 2015 of current system of the rights to cultivation of grapes which dictated to farmers what grades and on what lands to grow up that forced many small producers to refuse business. On request of Germany the compromise solution also contains permission to sugar addition in wines that is characteristic for the northern countries where not always there is enough sun in order that grapes gathered necessary amount of sugar. At the same time, the compromise solution provides installation of restrictions on addition of sugar which can be cancelled in case of special not solar years.

           The commissioner of EU concerning agricultural industry and rural development Mariann Fischer Boel declared that new reform in winemaking should strengthen the European positions in this market not only in the European Union, but also in the world. And how the Government of Ukraine strengthens positions of the Ukrainian wine makers? According to WTO conditions, Ukraine almost ten times should lower custom duties on import wines. Rates of import duty for them will decrease from present 2-3 euros for liter to 0,3-0,4 euros for liter. The exception is made by sparkling wines, duty on which import is established at level of 1,5 euros for liter. On import of hard alcoholic beverages and Vermouths Ukraine undertook to cancel duty in 2011. Duty on beer will be lowered from 0,5 euros for liter to 0,005ÑóÓ/litre. It means that the bottle of imported wine should fall in price in retail network on 20 UAH., cognac – on 15 UAH. On June 3, 2008 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine passed the Law About modification of the Law of Ukraine About a customs tariff of Ukraine (concerning reduction of rates of customs duty in compliance with the level defined by the schedule of tariff obligations of Ukraine on accession to WTO for 2008). In particular, this document enters a delay for decrease in import rates on a row of the import goods, including wines and wine materials. Customs rates for these groups of the goods will be lowered since January 1, 2009.

           Passed more than three years as the Ministry of the AR Crimea agro-industrial complex directed the address addressed to the Minister of agrarian and industrial complex of Ukraine with the offer on the mechanism of use of means of 1 % of collecting. Their essence consisted in the following:

Within state and regional development programs of gardening and wine growing to allocate the long-term target credits for a period of 10 years for a laying of young plantings. An interest rate of the commercial credits to compensate in 100 % volume at the expense of budgetary funds of 1 % of collecting the Credits to return, since the moment of the introduction of plantings in fructification within five next years equal shares.

           These offers which really would promote branch development, weren’t accepted.  

           Since July 1, 1999 for the purpose of restoration of a source of raw materials and a growth in volumes of production of gardening, vinogradarsko-wine-making and hop production came into force. This collecting is monthly paid into the special account of the State treasury of Ukraine. Owing to collecting introduction in the government budget 1206,6 million UAH during this time arrived. Means of 1 % of collecting were used on production of design and budget documentation and design and exploration work, acquisition of a landing material, soil preparation, an irrigation, lane establishment on vineyards. In total thanks to the state support 29,6 thousand hectares of intensive fruit and berry plantings, 26,9 thousand hectares of vineyards and 1,3 thousand hectares of hmelnik are put. Respectively on the average 20,8 thousand UAH were the share of 1 hectare of the created gardens or vineyards. receipts. For 2008 in the budget receipt of 275 million UAH is supposed. but, owing to the obligation of producers to buy the wholesale license since January 1, 2007, receipts on collecting already reached 350 million UAH. As we see, means for development of branch are, it is necessary to supervise their rational target use rigidly only.

           By scientists it is counted up that economic efficiency of wine growing in the world is higher, than field cultures, counting on unit of area in 10 times, and in some developed vinogradarsky countries – at 15-20 time. In CIS countries specialized farms receive from grapes on unit of the processed square at 30-40 % more gross output and in 2-3 times more net profit, than at cultivation of vegetables. In the Republic of Moldova vineyards occupy less than 10 % of the area of all agricultural holdings, but provide receipt to 25 % of money, from all cost of crop production and form to 35 % of the general profit. Recently in Moldova one more profile organization, urged to promote development of sector of wine growing and republic winemaking – Association of producers and exporters of table grapes (APESV) is created. It is organized at the initiative of 11 producers and exporters of table grapes of the Republic of Moldova with support of the Project of development of the agricultural business financed by Agency of the USA on the international development (USAID).

           According to the program, the increase in production of grapes of table grades to 150 thousand tons by 2010, to 200 thousand tons – by 2015 and to 250 thousand tons – by 2020 is provided. The program also assumes increase of ability of storage of production of wine growing of Moldova. By 2010 the potential of storage of table grapes should grow up to 20 thousand tons, and by 2020 – to 50 thousand tons.

           Despite problems with deliveries to the market of Russia which the wine-making branch faced the last two years, in Moldova landing of new plantations of a rod will proceed. The director general of Moldova Vin agency Valeriu Mironesku reported about it. According to him, in 2008 about 5300 hectares against 5200 hectares in each of two previous years are planned to put.

In Moldova the state enterprise "Moldvinipoteka" which provides to the peasants, wished to grow up the grapes, four forms of crediting on favorable terms is created. owners can receive to 25 thousand leev on 1 hectare of grounds (12,5 thousand UAH).

          As the Doctor of Engineering, the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of Moldova Boris Gaina, the comparative analysis of grapes of the different countries, begun in 1992 in the French city of Monpelye notes, showed that the Moldavian grapes are more useful than that grows in France, Spain and Switzerland. According to the scientist, in berries of grapes of grades of Cabernet and Sauvignon from the South of Moldova the content of biologically active substances promoting a conclusion of free radicals, in 2,4 times more than in the same grade of the grapes which have been grown up under Monpelye, in France. As a result scientists came to a conclusion that the Moldavian grapes contain the useful substances, capable to prevent cancer and vascular diseases, in bigger quantity, than grapes in France, Spain and Switzerland. Researchers explain it, first of all, a geographical position of Moldova and climatic features of the country.

          Unfortunately, our Crimean scientists don’t carry out similar researches, and if carry out, results them we do not know neither we, nor Europe. Let’s remember in this regard, the Patriot and the Patriarch of domestic winemaking prince Golitsyn and as excellent Lev Sergeyevich proved to world community and leading world experts – to tasters that the Crimean champagne surpasses the French.

          To Perestroika times to us to the Crimea there arrived once big delegation of the French wine makers and wine-growers. They were shocked from seen. Most of all they were struck that in small to the Crimea are made both a sherry, and a mader, both champagne, and cognacs, branded dining rooms, fortified and sweet wines and all this at level of the best world samples. The translator of times tried to explain five that in state farm of "Grape" 2000 hectares of vineyards. At them it didn’t go in, after all at the largest French producer only 300ga. And having tasted the wines, one of prominent wine makers, in confusion said, and what will be with our wine when your wines will enter the European market? Then the professor S.Yu. Dzheneev calmed him, with bitterness, having prophetically told that it will occur very much not soon.

   And what nowadays? Wine makers of France are interested in cooperation with Ukraine, including in the sphere of production of branded production. The minister reported about it in interview rural and fishery of France Michel Barnye. According to M. Barnye, many French enterprises "look narrowly at vineyards of the Crimea, Odessa region and the Carpathians". "Wine makers of France

 

V. YARMILKA,

candidate of agricultural sciences,

coordinator of IKTs "Agromarketing"

Simferopol.