Cabbage diseases at storage

Information on optimum modes of storage of cabbage is provided in article belokachanny, the main diseases and ways of their prevention.

Belokachanny cabbage grow up everywhere

Belokachanny cabbage grow up everywhere. The wide circulation of this culture is caused by its valuable economic features: high productivity, good transportability, ability is long to remain fresh. Existence early, and also late-ripening and lezhky grades allows to have fresh cabbage throughout the most part of year.

The Belokachanny cabbage contains in heads of cabbage on the average 8,5 % of solid which structure includes carbohydrates, a significant amount of nitrogenous substances and mineral salts. Carbohydrates are presented mainly by sugars. At separate grades sugar can make nearly 3/4 dry veshhest­va therefore the belokochanny cabbage is well fermented.

Nitrogenous veyoshchestvo in cabbage more than in carrots, a beet, a swede, turnip. The most part (75-87 %) them is easily acquired by a human body. Are available in it and mineral substances (on the average 0,64 %), soderyozhashchy potassium, calcium, phosphorus, se­ru and others.

The cabbage is rich such vitami­nami, as: With, To, folic acid. It is especially rich with vitamin C (ascorbic kislo­ta) which contains in nejv average 32 mg on 100 g of crude substance, and vitamin C xoro­sho remains in fermented and vareyony cabbage at the correct prigoyotovleniye.

The crop is already accurate. How it will be stored?

At storage of vegetables in storages it is necessary to consider the following factors of the abiotichesky environment: temperature of production and okruyozhayushchy environment, humidity of air and its access to production. At the poniyozhenny temperatures close to 0°S, intensity of breath of live cages decreases, active development of microorganisms is late, the prodolzhiyotelnost of a cycle of development of nematodes and other insects znachiyotelno increases.

Mode of storage of cabbage of prodoyovolstvenny appointment podraz­delyaetsya for two periods: period of an okhyolazhdeniye and main period. For long storage cabbage ubi­rayut with 4-6 skintight green leaves and quickly oxlazh­dayut it in storage. Vosnovna the period of a hrayoneniye maintain temperature-1… 0°S and relative humidity of air – 90-98 %. Thus rezhi­me the belokochanny cabbage of average late-ripening grades with a bad lezhkost is stored only 2-4 months, from the satisfactory – 5-6 months, and late-ripening grades with a good lezhkost – till June.

The main reason, zatrudnyayuyoshchy the organization of storage of fresh vegetables – the contents in them a large amount of water that usi­livaet intensity of an exchange of veyoshchestvo in cages and fabrics. The Podavlyayuyoshchy part of water is in a svobodyony mobile form and only 1/5 – in the connected condition that obuslov­livaet not only the strengthened metabolism, but also the raised chuvstviyotelnost to environment conditions.

Them neobxodi­mo to store in conditions of povyyoshenny relative humidity of air, that predupre­dit the evaporation leading to a sniyozheniye of a turgor, to withering and a weight decrease. Thus in faded vegetables sharply decreases natural im­munitet, and they are exposed to damage owing to development of mikroyoorganizm on them.

Vegetables don’t stack densely, between them always there are proyomezhutka. And it means that naxodya­shhijsya in them air renders vliyayony on all components and can  differ suyoshchestvenno  from atmospheric on structure, temperature and humidity.

Wreckers of selskokhozyaystvenyony cultures influence safety of production put in storages. The vegetables damaged in the field, terya­yut natural immunity and in mes­tax courses of wreckers easily porazha­yutsya microorganisms. In a defeat place vegetables are loosened, cages darken, die off, nachina­etsya rotting. Losses from paraziyotarny and physiological zaboleyovaniye of separate types of vegetables in storages without regulated re­zhima during storage can do­stigat: cabbage – 10-35 %, carrots – 8-25 %, beets – to 15 %, onions repyochaty – to 25 %.

Emergence of diseases of vegetables during the period a hraneyoniya is caused by many factors and first of all – a constant priyosutstviye of causative agents of diseases on objects of storage. Thus on degree and time of manifestation boyolezny the great influence is rendered by high-quality features of cultures, an usyoloviya of cultivation, udobyoreniye system, cleaning terms, ways of postharvest completion, modes of storage and other factors.

One of the reasons of decrease in a lezhkosposobnost of cabbage belokochanyony is the complex of mushroom and bacterial diseases, zanesenyony on heads of cabbage from a field. A mucous bacteriosis – the most harmful illness of belokochanny cabbage. Notable losses are put by also gray decay.

Mucous bacteriosis, or wet (soft) decay of cabbage. Name xarakte­rizuet symptoms of this bo­lezni. The struck fabrics are softened, turning into a semi-fluid mucous kayoshitsa with unpleasant the zapayokhy. The illness is struck ka­pustu at all stages by a razviyotiya. On sprouts and during the first periods of development of a plant the mucous bacteriosis is observed very seldom. In these cases on leaves po­yavlyayutsya the indistinct maslyanisyoty spots grasping all lisyotovy surface, later leaves darken, osliznyayutsya and decay. At defeat of heads of cabbage the internal part them completely decays, exudes an unpleasant smell, heads of cabbage nadlamy­vayutsya and fall.

Bacteria get in kocherygi at damage of matochnik naseyokomy (a cabbage fly, gusenica­mi repny and cabbage white butterflies, poyolevy slugs from groups of bryukhoyonogy mollusks, etc.), at a podmoyorazhivaniye of plants (through obrazu­yushhiesya as a result of it treshhi­ny), and also at damage kocha­nov during the cleaning, transportation and a bookmark on storage. Decay long time remains unnoticed and pro­yavlyaetsya in the spring, when kocherygi vy­sazhivayut in the field. Especially sharply process of rotting proceeds in the field in the spring and in the summer at the increased temperature. First of all po­gibayut plants at which polno­styu the internal part of a head of cabbage decayed. The internal part kocherygi poyostepenno is softened, prevrashha­yas in mucous weight with an unpleasant smell, at such plants a stalk utonchaetsya, the plant podlamyvaet­sya and perishes.

Mucous bacteriosis pora­zhayutsya all grades belokochanny ka­pusty.

Vascular bacteriosis. The illness affects cabbage on all phases of development. Symptoms ob­naruzhivayutsya at first on the bottom leaves, and further on more top – on a spiral.

At a cross-section or longitudinal cut through the central vein or chereshok a leaf cheryony points or strips of struck vessels are clearly visible. Defeat kocheryg vnesh­ne is shown in the form of a blackening of a vascular ring. Such plants are unsuitable for transportation and long storage as easily rot and are surprised saprofityony mushrooms and putrefactive bakteyoriya.

Optimum conditions for a razviyotiya of a vascular bacteriosis: tempe­ratura – 22… 24°S, relative humidity – 80-100 %. Warm autumn with steady rains blagopriyatstvu­et to illness development. At cold and dry autumn weather development bo­lezni zatormazhivaetsya, then a rasyoteniye with the latent infection zakla­dyvayut on storage and an illness pro­yavlyaetsya mainly the next year at disembarkation koche­ryg. The illness progresses in process of development of plants and reaches makyosimalny manifestation in a soyozrevaniye phase. During this period one of signs of its manifestation is dimness of vessels. But it is necessary to mean that similar simpto­my can be observed and at physiological violations, especially at excess of azotyony fertilizers.

Most strongly sosuyodisty bacteriosis pora­zhayutsya grades of early and average terms sozrevayoniya.

Gray decay. Vozbudiyotel – gribBotrytis cinerea. The illness affects all orga­ny cabbage during a vegetayotsiya, at storage it mo­zhet to cause a significant damage if heads of cabbage were frozen or povrezh­deny by insects. Simptoyoma: the leaf becomes covered pushiyosty gray for a short while, soyostoyashchy of a mycelium and pathogen dispute, then on porayozhenny fabrics black tumors – sklerotsiya are formed. Strong development of an illness ot­mechaetsya at high humidity and the raised air temperature at storage.

The cabbage and other diseases is surprised.

White decay. The activator – gribSclerotinia sclerotiorum. Naiyobolshy danger to cabbage represents at storage. Naruzhyonye leaves of heads of cabbage become sliyozisty and rot. On them obra­zuetsya a plentiful white vatoobrazny raid from which droplets of transparent liquid are allocated. Late on the struck fabrics ob­razuyutsya black tumors – sklerotsiya. The struck heads of cabbage sgniva­yut and the illness extends on the healthy.

Development of an illness is promoted by high humidity and the raised air temperature at storage (in storage of a sklerotsiya don’t lose viability to new the uroyozhy; in the field, if they are on depth no more than 8 cm from poverxnos­ti soils – about 3 years). After pe­rioda rest of a sklerotsiya sprout, forming a mycelium capable in techeyony of some time to saprofityony existence in the soil. Under favorable conditions the mycelium of a mushroom infects roots of a plant-hoyozyaina and passes to land parts.

Fomoz, or dry decay. Vozbuyoditel – PhomalinqamDesm mushroom. Strikes all bodies of cabbage on all phases of development. On leaves and kocherygax roundish or proyodolgovaty light-brown spots with a dark bordering on which numerous black points – piknidy a mushroom are formed are visible. Ulcers on ko­chanax considerably increase, and kocherygi become mouldering. Development of an illness is promoted by poyovyshenny humidity of air and tepyoly weather.

Dot necrosis – a neinfekyotsionny disease. Are surprised both external, and internal lis­tya a head of cabbage. On leaves there are the black or lead-colored slightly pressed spots located odinochno or groups, sometimes along veins.

Nitric fertilizers strengthen a disease, and potash and boric, and also lime application reduce, but don’t eliminate it. On defeat ka­pusty a dot necrosis the great influence is rendered by temperature. The grade matters also. At an odinayokovy agrotechnology and equal uslovi­yax storages the cabbage of different grades is surprised a dot necrosis differently. The first symptoms of a disease appear still in the field, before the uboryoky. In the course of storage the illness extends and reaches mak­simuma in March – April. Therefore for decrease in level of defeat ka­pusty it is necessary ko­cheryg to conduct at cutting a vybrakovka of heads of cabbage, poyorazhenny in strong degree.

Thus level of losses in storage in many respects opre­delyaetsya degree of a porazhennost of production zaboleyovaniye activators in vegetation, and also storage modes. Improvement of a fytosanitory situation in the field will allow to increase safety of production. Knowledge of terms of a proyavyoleniye and dynamics of development bolezyony during its storage pozvolya­et in due time to hold zashchityony events. Elimination of the centers of decay, and also production realization, first of all, concern that a pererayobotka, in opyotimalny terms.

Vegetables possess the greatest food and flavoring value at opyoredelenny extent of maturing. Further their fresh storage leads to aging and a quality ukhudsheyoniya. At storage of belokoyochanny cabbage occur an izmeneyoniya of a chemical composition: kolichest­vo ascorbic acid from October to April decreases by 40 %, suyokhy substance – from 9 % to 6,2-7,4 %, and monosugars – with 4,3 to 2,3-2,6 %, in February disaxarov already isn’t present.

What it is necessary to do, that so­xranit a cabbage crop? Not later than what a month before a bookmark on hraneyony cleared of vegetative osyotatok, the soil, garbage and the otremontiyorovanny rooms which have been taken away for these purposes, it is necessary pobe­lit a svezhegasheny lime (2 kg/10 of l of water with addition of 100 g of a copper vitriol, in advance razveyodenny in a small amount of warm water) and to dry. Otbira­yut for storage healthy, without the meyokhanichesky damages, not frozen slightly heads of cabbage. Optimum reyozhy storages: temperature – not above 10S, relative humidity of air – 90-95 %. Doesn’t follow pere­gruzhat a room where there will be xra­nitsya a cabbage. Cleaning of heads of cabbage of the struck leaves and dusting by chalk will lower a disease gray and white gnilyami.

Average diameter of heads of cabbage at a bolyyoshinstvo of cultivated grades of koyochanny cabbage – 170-240 mm. For reduction of damages and an uluchsheyoniya of a trade dress of cabbage, postavyolyaemy for realization or zaklad­ki on short-term storage, it is necessary, that length vystupayuyoshchy over heads of cabbage kocherygi not pre­vyshala 5-10 mm. A scrap kocheryg for this length and use of the loader of cabbage, obespechivayuyoshchy the height of falling of heads of cabbage in pre­delax 200-300 mm, is reduced by level of damages of production to 30-35 %, including strong – to 2-3 %. At cabbage shipment on storage with two-three covering green lis­tyami strong damages not pre­vyshayut 1-2 %.

To reduce losses of fruit-and-vegetable production at storage it is possible puyoty selection of the grades possessing the raised lezhkost; a soblyudeyoniya at cultivation of cabbage of neyoobkhodimy technological norms; decrease in mechanical povrezhdeyoniya when cleaning and production transportation; improvement of an oryoganizatsiya of acceptance of production in me­stax productions; expansions of volume container (tare) pe­revozok; organizations and sovershenyostvovaniye of a postharvest obrayobotka of vegetable production, sozdayoniya of optimum storage conditions, introductions of high-quality technology of storage.

(On Ovoshchevodstvo magazine materials).