How to keep apples and pears

This publication opens biological, agrotechnical and high-quality features of fruit crops which influence duration of the period of storage.

On the storage period in optimum conditions fruits of the semechkovy divide into three groups: with the long period (3-8 months

On the storage period in optimum conditions fruits of the seyomechkovy divide into three grup­py: with the long period (3-8 months) – apples and pears of winter grades; with an average (1-3 months) – apples, pears of average terms of a soyozrevaniye; and with short (15-20 suyotok) – early grades of apples and pears.

The Lezhkost of fruits depends from so­rta, speeds of maturing and cultivation usloyoviya. Uniform warm weather extends nastupleyony maturing and increases a proyodolzhitelnost of storage of fruits, very high temperatures, na­oborot, accelerate maturing and reduce duration of their storage.

The apples which have been grown up on soils with a close zaleganiye of rubble, sand and on sour, nedoyostatochno provided with calcium and pine forest, are ill a bitter yamchatost, a steklovidnost and nizkotemyoperaturny burns.

The fruits which have been grown up in mountains, contain less sugars and more orgayonichesky acids, vitamin C, po­skolku there more intensively action of ultra-violet radiation.

The lezhkost and other poyokazatel of fruits is influenced by granuyolometrichesky structure of the soil: on clay soils fruits formiruyut­sya small, ripen later, but remain more long, than vyyorashchenny on soils sandy and sandy granulometrichesko­go structure. On the last fruits have less balanced chemical composition – contain less solids. The kacheyostvo of fruits is influenced even more by association such as the soil with klimayotichesky conditions. For example, on polessky soils apples of grades Kalvil snow and Johnathan na­kaplivayut to 14 % of solids, in the south of the Forest-steppe and in the Steppe – svy­she 15 %. At the same time uvelichi­vaetsya the content of sugar and polyphenolic substances, and vitamin C decreases. As a rule, on meadow and chernozem soils the period of maturing of fruits is extended, and on the southern chernozems is accelerated. On soils of odinakoyovy type and granulometric structure, but with a large supply of nutrients in all so­rtax semechkovy cultures the vegetatsiyoonny period is extended. Fruits of apples and the pears, grown up on boyogaty nutrients soils, have the best flavoring properties.

A lezhkost of fruits in znayochitelny degree influence tem­peratura and humidity during the vegetayotsionny period. Separate so­rta unequally react to these factors. So, grade apples Simirenko’s Rennet, grown up during a season with an excessive precipitation and the nizyoky sum effective tempe­ratur, are stored for 1,5-2 months less. The lack of heat, light and excess of moisture render a sodeyyostviye to education in fruits of apples and pears of spare cages of the big size at reduction tolshhi­ny cellular walls. Big cages reduce resistance of fruits to mechanical damages and infection with diseases, have the low content of proteins – a gidrofilny part of cellular colloids that reduces their moisture-holding ability and pri­vodit to fast withering.

High temperature in a soyochetaniye with a large amount of a precipitation predetermine intenyosivny growth, fast maturing of fruits and reduction of a soyoderzhaniye of spare nutrients in them. The crop, vyrashchenyony is especially nelezhyoky when watering by sewage with the big content of nitrogen and the small content of potassium.

At irregular orosheyoniya security of fruits with calcium and pine forest is broken. Excessive waterings in the conditions of an air drought can lead to education on plo­dax microcracks that strengthens their susceptibility to diseases.

For fruits semechkovy very important yavlya­yutsya weather conditions of the last before cleaning 3-4 ne­del. If during this period day and night air temperatures vyyosoky, fruits of apples quickly te­ryayut taste, juiciness, are surprised mealy dew, and at storage are inclined to suntan. At alternation of warm days with cool nocha­mi coloring of fruits improves, their resistance to suntan raises. An excessive precipitation during this period causes a pobureniye mya­koti fruits of apples, and in a foothill zone, where air in the afternoon dry and teyoply, and at night cold, formi­ruyutsya fruits with a high soderyozhaniye of aromatic substances, with dense fabrics which men­she are injured during cleaning and transportation.

Some grades of apples, for example, Winter Plesetsk, Boyken, Umansky winter, at a small amount of a precipitation and good security with heat (the sum of effective temperatures from flowering before cleaning sostavlya­et 2132-2507°C) are stored best of all, however a grade of apples Zarya Poyodolya which has been grown up at the high sum of effective temperatures and a lack of moisture, has a bad lezhkost. And a grade Simirenko’s Rennet it is good soxra­nyaetsya at high obespechenno­sti heat and moisture. Decrease in a lezhkost of apples of all so­rtov is observed at the high sum of effekyotivny temperatures in 40 days prior to cleaning.

Many grades of apples poloyozhitelno react to a zaluzheniye of row-spacings: coloring of fruits, a chemical composition, uve­lichivayutsya the sum of polyphenolic substances, an exit of standard fruits improve. An exception are some grades, for example Johnathan, at which more okrashenyony and lezhky fruits at a soderyozhaniye of row-spacings under black steam. It is known that a zaluzheniye of row-spacings positively vli­yaet on quality of fruits only at good providing trees with moisture (humidity of the soil not less than 70 %). Zaluzheniye reduces a nitrogen postuyopleniye to fruits, assists bigger accumulation of sugars, vitamin C, R-active substances.

Fruits with the best toyovarny qualities of the grades of apples most widespread in the Western Ukraine Johnathan and Simirenko’s Rennet receive at cultivation in gardens where, nachiyony from fifth year after landing, apply cespitose peregnoj­nuyu system of the maintenance of the soil with steam processing of pristvolyyony circles. Commodity indicators and a lezhkost of apples of a grade Kalvil snow is always better, if they are grown up in the conditions of a constant or periodic zaluzheniye.

Quality of fruits of apples and pears is influenced considerably by food conditions. So, the apples which have been grown up at a superfluous nitric food, grow large, poorly okrayoshenny and at storage have high intensity of breath, are ill and rot. Parties of such fruits zakladyva­yut on short-term storage. At insufficient nitric coloring of fruits is brighter than a pitayoniya, but they have the increased acidity and smaller aroma. Grades of apples the Rennet sparkling, Rosemary white and Parmen of zimyoniya gold react to excess of nitrogen as have melkokletochny structure of pulp less. In particular excess of nitric fertilizers is harmful when it causes increase in a soyoderzhaniye of potassium in fruits and izme­nyaet a ratio between potassium, magnesium and calcium. Neblagopriyoyatnoye can be reduced influence of nitrogen, spraying trees solution of chloride or nitrate of calcium which strengthens sten­ki cages and improves safety of fruits. Besides, spraying promotes increase of the content of vitamin C.

At excess of phosphorus fruits of the semechkovy are formed small, better painted, but firmer, without characteristic for grades of flavoring qualities. Xra­nyatsya they long, however their flavoring qualities remain bad, and some grades of apples thus are ill decay a seryodechka more often. At a lack of phosphorus fruits which at storage have a high intenyosivnost of breath and tendency to rotting and an internal pobureniye are formed.

At a good obespechenyonost potash fertilizers form beautiful antotsianovy coloring of fruits, povyshayut­sya density of their fabrics and a kislotyonost. At a lack of potassium the usvaivayemost of calcium which brings to a formirovayoniya of non-standard fruits at which storage withering and fast decomposition of cages (emergence  of a muchnistost of fruits) is observed decreases. Fertilizer of apple-trees and pears kaliyyony fertilizers in the raised doses against a sufficient obeyospecheniye nitrogen and phosphorus and spraying of 0,5 % – m karbonayoty calcium before cleaning povy­shayut resilience of fruits of apples and pears to physiological diseases in a storage time.

Calcium stabilizes ultrastructure of fruits, obespe­chivaet a normal funktsioniroyovaniye of cellular walls, being a part of pectinaceous substances. At the low contents it povysha­yutsya solubility of pectinaceous substances that brings to an utoncheyoniya of cellular walls, to strengthening of intensity of breath, bystro­mu to aging of fruits, decrease in their stability to mushroom and fizioloyogichesky diseases. Therefore on poor soils for improvement of a lezhkost of fruits after flowering trees spray 1 % – m a rasyotvor of nitrate of calcium and provo­dyat lime application of row-spacings.

At surplus in the soil the magyoniya raises tendency of fruits to a bitter yamchatost, and at excess of pine forest – to a disease a steklovidnost.

Only the balanced mineral food okazyva­et assistance to an optimum nayokopleniye in fruits of apples and pears of pectinaceous substances.

The apples which have been grown up without introduction  into  the soil  of mineral fertilizers on a good organicheyosky background, also have a high lezhkost. Intensive grades poyolozhitelno react to povyyoshenny doses of a complete mineralyyony food, and fractional application of fertilizers extends the soyozrevaniye and storage period. To a lezhkost of fruits the vneyoseniye of high doses of mineral fertilizers in young gardens is harmful.

Safety of fruits is influenced also by age of trees. Fruits of apples and pears from trees of middle age are best of all stored. At zagushchenny krone fruits with the worst hiyomichesky structure, badly okrayoshenny, owing to what snizha­etsya a crop of the highest and first grades are formed. Strong a scrap of trees causes formation of fruits with a bad lezhkost. Apple-trees on srednerosly and dwarfish stocks yield fruits of apples and pears more painted and the best on flavoring qualities, than trees on silnorosly stocks, however fruits from trees on silnorosyoly stocks remain more long.

 Duration of storage of fruits of apples and pears oprede­lyaetsya mainly to a stepeyonye of their maturity during cleaning. It is best of all to clean fruits in a sjeyomny maturity, which nastu­paet at achievement of the normal size, a certain coloring and the weight, inherent in a poyomologichesky grade. Biological value of optiyomalny term of cleaning of fruits of apples and pears consists that at this time there is a sbalanyosirovaniye of process of accumulation of organic substances in fruits and their splitting as a result of activity. The fruits of apples cleaned in this period and pears possess a high lezhkost, prinastupleniya of a physiological (consumer) maturity pri­obretayut good taste and aroma. Nevertheless, different grades of apples react to cleaning term differently: a little earlier approaches of a harvest maturity it is necessary to break apples so­rtov Glory to winners, Mekintosh, Antonovka, Pepin shafranny, Kalvil of mliyevskiya, Umansky winter, Winter Plesetsyoky, the Rennet Simirenko, Johnathan, Ruby Duca, Kalvil snezhyony, the Rennet sparkling. In a full technical  maturity  clean apples of grades of Pepink Lithuanian, Melba, the Rennet of landzberskiya, Poyodolsky, Boyken, Parmen winter gold, Kandil Sinop, Mantuansky, Rosemary white, Delishes, the Mliyevsky beauty.

It is best of all to clean fruits in dry weather, po­sle dew drying, and vlazhnyenado to dry. At night frosts fruits clean after thawing of fruits, podmorozhenyony use for processing.

Ability to heal a wound on fruits at apples and pears is shown only when they still are on trees. Poeyotoma should be cleaned them, predotvrayoshchy mechanical damages.

Most long soxranyayut­sya fruits of apples and pears which right after cleaning put in refrigerators. When cleaning without a soyortirovka fruits sort then on different lines.

Almost among all pomologiyochesky grades it is best of all xra­nyatsya fruits of the average sizes. Fruits of an apple-tree and a pear of the premium put in the oiled paper, producing from it zayorany napkins of such sizes: 17 x 17, 23×23 and 30×30 see. It is best of all to store fruits of apples and pears in wooden (without cracks) or plastic boxes. Ukladyva­yut fruits in boxes straight lines ryada­mi, chess or diagonal way. When laying by pryayomy ranks spaciousness of container is used not optimum. On a bottom and under a cover put a layer of sawdust, on each side – upakoyovochny paper, which fruits na­kryvayut from above.

Biological basis of a lezhkost of fruits of apples and pears is isyopolzovany conditions of posleuyoborochny ripening. All fruits – it is bodies which finish ontogenetichesky razyovity plants with more or less created reproduktivyony bodies – seeds. If a seed immature, it for svoyoy development has communication smyakotyu. Between them before polyony maturing of seeds prois­xodit a mutual exchange of plastic and physiological substances. After maturing of seeds the pulp quickly grows old, as it executed the function.

Intensity of breath of svezheubranny fruits of apples and pears, in particular late grades, throughout long time keeps at one level, except the period of their adaptation to new conditions when it raises. When the seed ripened, that is, there came a fiziologicheyosky maturity of fruits, there is a sharp increase intensivno­sti breath. It is the so-called climacteric period after which fruits grow old. Nastuyopleniye climacteric peri­oda coincides with finding plo­dami the best consumer properties. At increase of an intenyosivnost of breath fruits of apples and pears don’t have oxygen, and internal fabrics pass them to anaerobny breath therefore the amount of ugleyokisly gas and ethylene which changes activity of enzymes increases. If fruits of apples and pears are stored at a big lack of oxygen (less than 7 %), of fabrics nedookislenny products (etiloyovy alcohol, acetaldegid, acetic and dairy acids) anaerobno­go breath which lead to physiological frustration of a metabolism (dimness, ne­krozy, spots) are formed. The allocated alcohol increases permeability of protoplasm. Under wax nayolety in a fruit peel at the end of a hrayoneniye collects farnezen (sikviterpenovy carbohydrates) that causes a hypodermic pobureniye and a dzhonatanovy spottiness.

Fruits of apples and pears, in an osobenyonost small, can fade, po­skolku their water-retaining spoyosobnost very low. Therefore sufficient humidity vozdu­xa and temperature – obligatory under control parameters. At high temperature intensity of breath of fruits of apples and pears increases, and at temperatu­re become higher 40°S than a cage the impractical. Podmorayozhivaniye of fruits leads to an izyomeneniye of componental composition of sugars and proteins, and at a deep promerzaniye – to change of a tseyolostnost of cages and death of a fruit. In a storage time in fruits the content of starch decreases, the content of monosugars, protopectin prevrashha­etsya in soluble pectin, a vsledyostviye of that fruit pulp stanovit­sya less firm increases, and at a perezreyovaniye of a cage separate and fruits become mealy. Organiyochesky acids together with sugars take part in all okisyolitelny processes, therefore during the climacteric period a soderyozhaniye them very low. Only hrayoneny at low temperatures and in RGS (adjustable gas sre­de) provides decrease in a decrease of organic acids.

Apples and pears should be stored in refrigerating chambers on grades with identical extent of maturing. Opozdyvaniye with a laying of fruits after approach of technical ripeness to one days reduces duration of storage for 10-15 days. Throughout all storage time relative humidity of air should be up to standard of 85-90 %. Intensity of evaporation of moisture depends on features so­rta (thickness of a kutikulyarny layer and wax), speeds of a current of air.

The high relative vlazhyonost of air at low tempe­raturax storages and decrease (koyolebaniye) of temperature to a dew-point can cause an otpotevaniye of fruits. Therefore at violation of stability of temperature it is necessary to carry out proyoduktsiya aeration to remove kondensiyorovanny moisture.

 Apples of grades of Parmen winter gold, Aport Alma-Atinsky, Alma-Atinyosky winter, Antonovka usual, the Winner, the Athlete, the Rennet sparkling remain at 2 … 4°S, whereas apples of grades Simirenko, Pepin’s Rennet shafranyony, Pepin London, Golden delishes, Uyelsi, Boyken, Rozmayorin white, Kandil Sinop, Sarra Sinop, Delishes – at 1 better… 2°S. Grades of Starking, Mekintosh best of all remain at temperature 0.-2°C. If plo­dy were in a pereyookhlazhdeniye condition, the temperature should be raised gradually: at first to 0°S, then to 1. 2°S. In 10-15 days they take a normalyyony form and taste.

At excess of optimum temperatures at all stages of posleyouborochny processing and storage duration of the period of a hrayoneniye decreases, as fruits of apples and pears ripen quicker. Late cleaned fruits should be stored at lower tempe­raturax. Immature fruits at low temperatures of storage te­ryayut ability to maturing and quickly fade, therefore they need to be stored at higher tempe­raturax.

Temperature fluctuations in pre­delax a certain mode do­puskayutsya no more than on 0,5°S. At bigger fluctuation fruits of apples and pears become overripe and po­vrezhdayutsya mushroom diseases. The temperature mode depends also on cultivation conditions: fruits of apples and the pears, grown up in the south, store at temperature, on 1 … 2°S above, than vyrayoshchenny to Polesye or in the severyony Forest-steppe.

Not later, than in a day after cleaning, fruits of apples and pears should be entered into the main mode. If distance to the refrigerator considerable, fruits predvariyotelno cool in day of cleaning with air with temperature 3-4°S.

Apply some modes of storage of fruits of apples and pears: at the lowered temperatures in usual atmospheric conditions, in the refrigerator with the adjustable gayozovy environment (RGS) and in a holodilyyonik with the modifitsiyorovanny gas environment (MGS). If for storage of grades of apples or pears, in particular vyrayoshchenny in the south, are necessary povyshenyony temperatures (3 … 4°S), for decrease in intensity of breath of fruits and development of microflora create the gas environment with miniyomalny amount of oxygen and maximum – carbon dioxide which the hraneyoniya provides udliyoneny durations, that is approach of a fizioyologichesky maturity is extended. As this mode of storage demands considerable materialyyony and power expenses, it apply only to fruits of vysyoshy and first commodity grades.

The RGS mode needs to be applied only to those grades of apples and pears for which rekoyomendatsiya  concerning  storage in the gas environment are developed. For a bolyyoshinstvo of grades of apples sootnosheyony carbon dioxide and oxygen makes about 5:3. Some grades, for example Rozyomarin white, Kandil Sinop, so­xranyayutsya it is good, when the soderyozhaniye of CO2 doesn’t exceed 1 %. Apples for storage in RGS should be cleaned right after approach technical (demountable) zrelo­sti. Into chambers with RGS them load for 1-2 days. Containers or yashhi­ki put a continuous stack (without passes). Against a survey window control obyorazets in open boxes place. Apples store till June-July.

In refrigerators boxes sta­vyat stacks in height to 3 m, leaving distance between them and a ceiling not less than 0,3 m for ventilation. Through each 3-5 m do passes in width of 0,6-0,7 m for production survey. At an isyopolzovaniye of means of a mekhanizayotsiya packages of the boxes placed on pallets or in containers, establish in 4-5 circles. Cardboard boxes with fruits of apples and pears place on pallets with struts. In small chambers boxes or containers razmeshha­yut a continuous stack, leaving through each 3-4 boxes ventilyayotsionny intervals of 10-15 cm, and in big chambers leave tsenyotralny pass in width of 1,5 m. Stacks with fruits place at distance of 0,5-0,6 m from walls, voz­duxoprovodov and batteries an okhlazhdeyoniya. Placement density at storage in boxes in chambers so­stavlyaet 250-350, in kg/sq.m containers 350-400.

For providing uniform temperature on all height kayomer outside of and in stacks carry out air circulation therefore the gas structure of the environment is leveled and ethylene from weight of fruits is removed. In the first month of storage, considering povyyoshenny intensity of breath of fruits, carry every day out 2-3 ventilations by external air, and to the main period of storage – periodically.

For storage of apples it is possible to use the modified gas environment (MGS). The best VMGS for storage are such grades: Simirenko, Sara’s rennet Sinop, Pepin shafranny, Rennet sparkling. Them store in small packages (1-5kg) or turn a film boxes, or put in boxes bags from a film a vmestitelyyonost of 20-30 kg, or use containers spaciousness of 200-300 kg. Fruits in a film raz­meshhayut in refrigerators also store in the recommended modes. In such capacities humidity of air always high that provides a good turgor of fruits. However even small decrease tempe­ratury leads to education in them the condensed moisture. Before casing in a film fruits cool Poeyotoma. Thickness of a film of 30-40 microns. The greatest effect of MGS gives at application of big polyethylene capes on 12-16 t of the fruits laid in konyoteyner and combined in height of 3-4 containers. Edges of such capes from below powder with sand. In pro­cesse storages watch a soderyozhaniye of carbon dioxide. For storage of fruits konteyyoner from a film with the gazoobmenny window, which sizes 3,7 x 1,3 x 1,2 use also, spaciousness – 600-900kg.

It is best of all to store fruits in RGS in storages where there are sootyovetstvuyushchy for this purpose chambers. Regulate the gas environment preiyomushchestvenno by means of liquid nitrogen with addition of 5-6 % kislo­roda. In a storage time umen­shaetsya the amount of oxygen also increases amount of ugleyokisly gas. This way of a reguliyorovaniye of the gas environment is most economic.

Good result receive, when the fruits of apples intended for a hrayoneniye process wax with fungicidami. The washed-up and dried-up fruits immerse in a wax emulsion with temperatuyory 30-35 Page. This way is more effective for fruits with a tonyoky thin skin. The same effect reach at storage of the apples wrapped in impregnated vazeyoliny paper which absorbs allocation products thanks to what incidence of fruits of suntan decreases.

Pears of winter grades store as well as apples. Pears can be stored till 8 months, applying sootyovetstvuyushchy to a grade a temperayoturny mode and the gas environment. Such grades of pears as Klapp’s Favourite, the Wood beauty, Bør Bosk, Josephine Mekhelnskaya, the Cure and some other, it is possible to store at temperature-1.-2°S, and other grades – at 0 … 1oS. Before pear realization, as a rule, maintain at 18-20°C if to realize them it is necessary in 10-15 days, and at 14-15°C, if realization term over 15 days.

Relative humidity voz­duxa in a storage time of pears pod­derzhivaetsya at level of 90-95 %. The gas environment for storage of a bolyyoshinstvo of grades of pears the such: ugleyokisly gas of 2-3 %, oxygen of 2-3 %, the rest – nitrogen.

(On magazine materials Real owner).