In article recommendations after a scrap of vineyards, victims of frosts are made.
Also the method of an assessment of a damage rate of wintering eyes is offered. Depending on category of damage (their four) are used different agromethods for restoration of activity of plants.
January frosts in the Crimea reached a point from a minus 21 (pgt Black Sea) to a minus 290S (pgt Nizhnogorsky) and prichinili a serious damage to vineyards. The winter yet didn’t end, and it is possible to fill the caused loss, if it is correct to define a look scraps and ways of further care of plantings. For this purpose it is necessary to estimate a damage rate of wintering eyes, annual and long-term parts of a plant depending on a grade, places of growth, an agrotechnology of cultivation. A scrap it should be directed on restoration of affected bushes and receiving a maksiyomalny crop.
The condition analysis glazkov, a bass, a cambium, wood of odnoyoletny escapes, rukavov, cordons, shtambov – prezhde all all neukyoryty parts of viyonogradny bushes is for this purpose necessary.
For average test on a site select till 25-30 escapes kazhdogo grades. In case it do right after moroza, samples bring in rooms where temperatura air 18-20°C and put the bases in vodu. In 2-3 days when will pass a pobureniye or a poyocherneniye of povrezhyodenny fabrics, start to analizu. Each peephole cut in the longitudinal direction of a rod so that then on a cut it was well visible central and zameyoshchayushchy kidneys. If they have bright green coloring, means, aren’t damaged. If they brown or dark brown color, znachit, were lost. It is necessary to pay osoyoby attention on replacing pochki as in case of death tsentyoralny at many grades from them can develop plodonosny pobegi.
At the same time on everyone pobege the accounting of the damaged fabrics is carried out. For this purpose from the different parties of escape by a sharp knife do proyodolny and cross-section cuts and establish damages of a bass, a cambium and wood. Removing a bark, define damage of fabrics. At healthy rods a bass bright green, at weak damage – slightly grown brown, at strong – korichyonevy. Healthy wood dolzhna to be white color with the yellowish shade, damaged tkani are painted in black or brown color.
In that case when there was no snow cover, it is necessary sdelat and the analysis of roots.
Depending on degree of a povrezhyodeniye of vineyards them divide into some categories. It opredelyayutsya and features scraps.
If death of eyes on a rod sostavlyaet to 75 %, such povrezhyodeniye refer to the first category.
If, to a priyomer, was lost to 50 % of eyes, length of rods, in comparison with same in normal year, not uvelichivayut, but increase their kolicheyostvo. If that is carried out veyoerny a high-standard form, a scrap at death of 25-30 % of eyes on every second sleeve neobxodimo to create the strengthened fruit link. At death of a half glazkov on all sleeves form the strengthened fruit links, besides knots of replacement extend to 4 eyes. In these cases receive a full crop of grapes.
At death of 75 % of eyes of polyonotsenny rods can not suffice, and then for creation normal nagruzki rods extend to 15 glazkov. In that case with guarantee can keep crop more than a half.
Plants with damage carry more than 75 % of eyes to the second kayotegoriya. In this case, estestvenyono, for full loading it is not enough escapes. Therefore on bushes delete the broken and not quite ripe escapes. High-grade shorten to 15 eyes. Knots don’t leave. It is necessary ostavit escapes and on old wood, and also well developed stepsons. Such a scrap it is aimed at polucheyony about a thirds of a crop in teyokushchy year and on creation of a normalyyony crop in the following.
If damages of eyes dostigayut 100 % – are the third category. In that case there can be a partial or strong povrezhyodeniye of fabrics of annual escapes and insignificant – long-term chayosty. In this case a scrap it is generally directed on maintenance and restoration of a form of a bush. It carry out, shortening outwardly polyonotsenny escapes on 1 – 2 peephole to cause to growth pobegi, including from angular glazkov. In this case from some grades it is possible to receive partially and a crop (A riesling, Aligota, etc.).
It is especially necessary to note very low on a sravneyoniya with plodonosnostyu the central kidneys, a plodonosyonost of the replacing kidneys, wintering eyes. It in the koyonechny account privodit to very poor harvest.
Follows obratit attention on covered snow or earth in bulk escapes and on their ispolyyozovaniye. They mogut kompensirovat all losses in not covered part of bushes and to give a polyonotsenny crop. In this case all costs of an ukryvka of will justify. On purpose the uvelicheyoniya of a sheet poveryokhnost and receiving a crop on vegetiruyushchy stepsons of grades of very ranyony and early terms of maturing carry out a prishchipyvaniye (Pino fran, Pearls Saba, Shasla white, the Queen of vineyards, the Muscat amber etc.). Do it at emergence of 6 – 8 knots from an osnoyovaniye. The received stepsons will be ispolzovany for formation of ployodovy links next year. On grades of later terms of a soyozrevaniye prishchipyvany vypolnyaetsya for the sake of bush formation.
To the fourth category carry bushes at which all nadyozemny part was lost. It can nablyudatsya in strongly lowered morozoopasny places. Only after the detailed analysis the decision on restoration of bushes by cutting of an elevated part is made. It is carried out on the imparted nasazhyodeniye above a soldering place on 10-15 cm without a further earthing up by earth. Restoration provoditsya at the expense of education of tops from sleeping kidneys.
On the priusadebny and country vinogyoradnik damaged morozami, the scrap can transfer for later terms when kidneys will start to bulk up. Amounts of works here small, and the left live kidneys at akyokuratny a scrap and a garter will give the guaranteed crop.
And. DIKAN, head of the department of wine growing of the Southern branch Crimean agrotechnological university of NAU, doctor of agricultural sciences, professor.