In article rough schemes on preparation of seeds of some vegetable cultures and potatoes are provided to crops. They are considered as the most effective since consider biological features of cultures.
Production growth in volumes a vegetable – bakhchevy cultures and potatoes, providing with them the population of the cities and the resorts of the Crimea in full requirement, increase of economic efficiency – one of the most important problems of today.
The increase in production of vegetables, bakhchevy and potatoes in a private sector (following the results of work for 2006 it made on potatoes of 97,4 % and a vegetable – to bakhchevy cultures of 74,4 %) demands a certain knowledge not only in cultivation of this or that vegetable culture, but also in their optimum selection and the correct placement on a site.
Many questions arise at acquisition of seeds: where them to take, what grades and hybrids it is better how to prepare seeds for crops, to grow up sprouts and how to dispose of the grown-up crop, to get profit.
The special attention should be given to an agrotechnology of cultivated cultures. For this purpose we, first of all, should know requirements of various vegetable plants to a complex of conditions: to light, heat, water, air and food during the different periods of life – from crops of seeds before crop maturing. Differently, we should know accurately their biology, and the knowledge of biological requirements of plants and ability to satisfy them – is a basis of receiving big crops.
In technology of vegetable growing all stages are responsible. One of them – acquisition of a sowing and landing material and its preparation for crops and landing. Crops are allowed by only konditsionny seeds not below the 1-2nd classes. It is better to use seeds of a crop of previous year. Only pumpkin 2-3rd summer prescription increase quantity of pistillate flowers in flowering. On each acquired party of seeds there should be a quality certificate without which the economy shouldn’t start preseeding works. In each economy we urgently recommend to organize points of complex preparation of seeds of vegetable cultures to crops with installation of the necessary equipment. It is obligatory, that all work on preparation of seeds was carried out under control of agrochemical laboratory or the agriculturist-seed grower of an economy. Pickle the seeds of the person which allowed on a state of health to performance of this work and have passed instructing in safety measures according to the instruction.
Proceeding from biological features of culture, sowing qualities of seeds, modern recommendations of a science and the advanced practice we consider as the most effective preparation of seeds to see off according to the following scheme:
Seeds of cucumbers:
1. Beforehand (in 1-1,5 months) it is necessary to carry out warming up of seeds within two days – at temperature 30°S, three days – at temperature 5O-52°C and one days at temperature 78-80°C. Thus, since 18-20°C temperature to increase within 1-2 hours.
2. For protection from peronosporoza dry seeds pickle a preparation aprona 2,5g on 1kg seeds in 1-2 months prior to crops.
3. Sorting of seeds according specific weight is made in water 3 %-numbers solution of table salt or ammoniac saltpeter. For this purpose seeds immerse in solution for 5 minutes, carefully mix and 5-7 minutes defend. Solution with the emerged seeds merge, and settled at the bottom – well wash out in flowing water and dry to flowability at temperature not above 40°S. For acceleration of drying it is possible to use an air stream from fans or to select water on a centrifuge.
4. Directly ahead of crops against virus diseases namachivayut in 1 %-number solution of margantsevokisly potassium within 20 minutes or in 15 %-numbers solution of trinatriya of phosphate within 1 hour with the subsequent washing in flowing water within 10-15 minutes.
5. Enrichment of seeds by microcells is carried out by soaking of seeds in the warm water solution containing: boric acid – 0,05 %, sernokisly copper-0,005 of %, sernokisly zinc – 0,05 %, sernokisly manganese – 0,05 %, molibdenovokisly ammonium – 0,05 %, nitrate cobalt – 0,05 %, at temperature 20-25°C within 12 hours.
6. At sowing culture barbotirovaniye reception is especially effective. Seeds mix with warm water at temperature 20-25°C in the ratio not less than 1:5 and aerate oxygen or air prior to the beginning of germination ("naklevyvaniye") of 2-5 % of seeds. Exposition of 15-18 hours.
7. Prorashchivaniye – in the thermostat at temperature 28-30°C within 12 hours.
8. A hardening – cold during 3 – 5 days at temperature – 1+1°S (action of constant temperature) or seeds of 12 hours at temperature-1+1 } With, and 12 hours at +18 – 20°S (maintain action in variable temperatures). When training it is impossible to allow developments of sprouts.
Seeds of tomatoes:
1. Beforehand, in 1-1,5 months to warm up seeds within two days – at temperature 30°S, three days – at temperature 5O °-52°C, gradually increasing temperature within 1-2 hours.
2. Grind trimmed semyana tomatoes for ensuring their uniform seeding in a special drum with the electric drive. Time of processing is regulated depending on quantity of turns and weight of processed seeds.
3. Protravlivaniye of seeds is recommended to be made in 1-1,5 months prior to crops by a preparation fundazol 5-6 g/kg.
4. Sorting – in 5 %-numbers solution of table salt or ammoniac saltpeter within 5 minutes with the subsequent washing in flowing water.
5. Against virus diseases seeds disinfect within 30 minutes in 1 %-number solution of margantsevokisly potassium or in 20 %-numbers solution of hydrochloric acid of 30 minutes with the subsequent washing in flowing water within 10-15 minutes.
6. Namachivaniye of seeds in the water solution of microcells containing: boric acid – 0,1 %, sernokisly copper – 0,05 %) sernokisly zinc – 0,05 %, sernokisly manganese – 0,05 %, molibdenovokisly ammonium – 0,02 %, amber acid of-0,002 %, nicotinic acid-0,01 of %, at temperature 24-26°C within 18 hours.
7. Barbotirovaniye reception is effective.
Seeds mix with warm water at temperature 20-25 ° With in the ratio not less than 1: 5 also aerate oxygen or air within 17-24 hours prior to the beginning of germination.
Hardening cold similarly to the carrying out scheme to seeds of cucumbers.
8. Prorashchivaniye of seeds is led at temperature 28°S within 24 hours.
Seeds of cabbage, beet, carrots:
1 Calibration of dry seeds is carried out through a sieve on fraction, then in 5 %-numbers solution of table salt or ammoniac saltpeter with the subsequent washing in flowing water.
2. In 1-1,5 months warming up at temperature 5O-55°C within 3 hours, since 18-20 Pages.
3. Directly ahead of crops seeds of cabbage warm up in hot water at temperature 50-52°C during 20 mines, then cool in cold water of 2-3 minutes. Dry 2 hours at temperature of 25-30 °C, stirring slowly.
4. Soaking in the warm water solution of microcells containing: boric acid-0,02 of %, potassium of margantsevokisly-0,05 %, ammonium of molibdenovokisly-0,01 %, cobalt nitrate – 0,05 %, zinc sernokisly – 0,05 %, amber acid – 0,002 % within 12 hours.
5. Barbotirovaniye. Seeds mix with warm water at temperature 20-25 ° With in the ratio not less than 1: 5 also aerate oxygen or air within 17-24 hours prior to the beginning of germination.
6. Prorashhivat at temperature 25-28°C – 12 hours.
Seeds of pepper and eggplants:
1. Sort seeds by specific weight in 5 %-numbers solution of table salt or ammoniac saltpeter with the subsequent washing in flowing water.
2. Disinfection of seeds against virus diseases make also, as tomatoes.
3. Presoak – in solution of microcells within 18 hours according to the scheme of tomatoes. Barbotirovaniye reception is effective. Seeds mix with warm water at temperature 20-250C in the ratio not less than 1: 5 also aerate oxygen or air within 24-37 hours prior to the beginning of germination.
4. Prorashhivayut – at temperature 25°S – 48 hours.
5. Good results receive by preparation of seeds an eggplant according to the following scheme: sorting in solution of ammoniac saltpeter (100 on the 10th waters) within 10 minutes, without the subsequent washing, with removal of the emerged seeds, then immerse them in solution of amber acid (23 mg on 1l waters) at temperature 50-60°C and keeping in solution of 12 hours before complete cooling, then a prorashchivaniye them within 3-4 days at temperature 24-30°C. It is possible to use in the same way solution of a metilenovy blue (300 mg on 1l waters) or 150 mg of boric acid and 150 mg of a copper vitriol on 1l waters with duration of soaking of 16 hours. All other process same, as well as when using amber acid.
1. Sort by specific weight how seeds of tomatoes. Carry out a barbotirovaniye. Seeds mix with warm water at temperature 20-25 ° With in the ratio not less than 1: 5 also aerate oxygen or air within 14-18 hours prior to the beginning of germination.
2. Enrichment of seeds by water solution of the microcells containing: boric acid – 0,02 %, manganese sernokisly – 0,05 %, zinc sernokisly – 0,05 %, ammonium molibdenovokisly – 0,02 %, copper sernokisly – 0,001 %, nicotinic acid – 0,01 %, make within 12 hours.
1. To avoid a complex of diseases and wreckers it is necessary to cultivate potatoes in a crop rotation. Isolation of summer landings from spring at distance not less than 3 km.
2. Against diseases (fitoftoroz, dry and wet decay, parsha), a stem nematode of potatoes, potato ask to carry out in three weeks prior to landing and after keeping at temperature +14-16 ° With before landing a partition of seed potatoes with removal of the struck and damaged tubers.
3. Before landing against dry decay, rizoktonioza, fomoza and ordinary parshi to process tubers preparation suspension Maxim 025 FS since page – 0,75 l/t.
4. Before landing against pochvoobitayushchy wreckers (provolochnik, lozhnoprovolochnik, larvae of cockchafers), the Colorado beetle, carriers of virus diseases (a tsikadka, a plant louse, tripsy), rizoktonioz to carry out processing of tubers by a complex system protravitel Prestige of 290 FSt.k.s. – 1½/t (term of protective action – Yuodnya).
Recently well proved Russian biofungicid new generation with the AGATE rostostimuliruyushchy properties – 25K, perspective for application in Ukraine. It contains the balanced set of starting doses of 14 microcells and the 3rd macrocells. The maximum biological and economic efficiency is reached at its complex use when processing seeds, sprouts and vegetiruyushchy plants according to recommendations.
Rough scheme of sequence of carrying out preparation of seeds:
1. Sorting or calibration according specific weight
2. Thermal processing (warming up)
4. Processing by microcells and further depending on culture
It is necessary to consider that the quantity and quality of a crop depends not only on preparation of seeds, but also a soil condition in crops, technology of crops and observance of optimum terms of performance of all processing methods on cultivation of this or that culture.
For its part specialists of department of plant growing of branch scientifically – technical information and agricultural consultation of the Crimean agrarian educational advice center are always ready to render the feasible is information – the advisory and practical help to all interested agricultural producers on providing with seeds and a landing material a vegetable – bakhchevy cultures and potatoes on the crop’s eve of the current year.
References on ph. (0652) 27-65-64, 26-08-79.
G. Tsyplyak, leading expert of department of plant growing of KGA UKTs.