The perspective direction of creation combined and shirokozakhvatny mta

Options of the combined units on the basis of family of the HTZ-120/160 tractors which allow to lower considerably an expense of fuels and lubricants are considered, to reduce labor costs, to increase productivity.
The table with results of tests of various options of MTA is provided.

UDC 631

Prospects of development of new combined (KMTA) and shirokozakhvatny units on the basis of family arable propashnyx the HTZ-120/160 tractors are considered. For achievement of positive effect from use of KMTA it is necessary to observe the following requirements:

–       power consumption of the engineering procedure which is carried out by the combined unit, less general power consumption at its performance by one-operational cars/tools;

–       productivity of the combined units isn’t lower, than at a complex of replaced one-operational cars/tools;

–       the working costs of the combined units are lower, or at level of working costs of a complex of one-operational cars/tools;

–       to promote increase of productivity of processed cultures, preservation of fertility of the soil, ensuring work in system of new technologies.

On a way of an agregatirovaniye the combined units divide into three groups:

1)     MTA at which one-operational cars which are produced in lots, are consistently connected among themselves by means of hitches;

2)     units at which power means is aggregated with car which has a uniform frame on which standing or replaceable working bodies can fasten;

3)     MTA consisting of several one-operational cars, one of which are hung on forward, and others on the back hinged mechanism of power means.

The main advantage of the first way of drawing up of KMTA is that complete the last from serial one-operational cars available in an economy without their alteration or with minor changes.

But, such KMTA are, as a rule, bulky and metal-consuming. In them the width of capture and optimum speed of work that complicates a choice of optimum parameters of made KMTA often don’t coincide.

Advantage of KMTA of the second scheme is big compactness and smaller metal consumption that allows to do a part of cars hinged or semi-hinged. Besides there is a possibility of use of working bodies and sections of serial cars in a necessary combination.

The most perspective the third scheme of assembly of KMTA looks. Advantages of such units is that the weight and traction resistance of frontally hung sections of cars increases vertical load of forward driving wheels of power means, increase coupling them with the soil and reduces slipping. Conditions of use of capacity of power means at the expense of redistribution of loadings on its bridges as a result improve, labor productivity raises and specific fuel consumption decreases.

However for KMTA drawing up according to such scheme power means with the forward hinged mechanism is necessary. It is desirable, that it had also a forward shaft of selection of capacity (VOM), a reversive post of management or reversive transmission, the engine with two levels of capacity, etc.

In Ukraine release of family arable propashnyx the HTZ-120/160 tractors which almost completely answer the requirements formulated above is mastered. On the basis of these tractors of scientific research institute of mechanization of agriculture of the South of Ukraine together with scientists of the NNTs "IMESH" Southern branch developed a number of schemes of the new perspective combined and shirokozakhvatny units.

One of burning issues in Ukraine is cleaning of grain grains of cultures, namely their kosheniye hook-on or hinged valkovy harvesters which are aggregated only with specialized power means KPS-5G or combine harvesters of the Field SK-5 type. In practice because of existence of a variety of reasons the real period between a kosheniye, selection of wolves and an eddish lushcheniye often leaves out of admissible limits. To get rid of these shortcomings it is possible by combination of operations of a kosheniye of cultures in the lushcheniye of mezhvalkovy space are shaky also. For this purpose on the basis of the HTZ-120 tractor the zhatveno-lushchilny unit was developed.

Not a smaller problem of agricultural production after cleaning of grubostebelny cultures (sunflower, corn) are rather high eddish which before the main processing of the soil should be crushed. The arable crushing unit which consists of the HTZ-120 tractor, is developed for simultaneous performance of these operations of a zadnenavesny plow of PLN type and face-to-face actively driving from forward VOM of a tractor of a grinder of an eddish under the conditional PRR-1,5 brand (capture – 1,5 m).

The tool is calculated on depth of plowing 25 see. After grinder pass the eddish of sunflower was crushed on fractions, the majority from which (41,3 %) made parts in length to 15 see.

By preliminary calculations it is established that introduction of such arable crushing unit on the basis of the HTZ-120 tractor will allow to gain on each hectare of the processed area economic effect at a rate of not less than 30 UAH.

Other combined units on the HTZ-120 base, the soils intended for the main processing with simultaneous crushing of an eddish look rather perspective also.

Practice testifies that if operations of a disking of an eddish of sunflower and chizelny processing of the soil to do separately (two units), total expenses of fuel would be on 4-5 kg/hectares (31-39 %) big, than received at simultaneous performance of these works.

From the shirokozakhvatny MTA constructed on the basis of the HTZ-120 tractor, in laboratory and field conditions it is tested sowing and arable according to the scheme "push-pull".

The structure of the sowing unit includes hitch SN-75 and three seeders SZ-3,6. New MTA moved with speed of 9,0 km/h. Working width of its capture – 10,65 ± 0,03 m. At the main productivity of 9,6 hectares/hours specific fuel consumption made 1, 35 kg/hectares.

Results of pilot studies of arable MTA on the basis of the HTZ-120 tractor are given in the table:

Notes. Vp – working speed of movement; Vr – working width of capture; W–main productivity; h–depth of plowing; δ – a buksovaniyedvizheteleytraktor; Rkr – tyagovoesoprotivleniepluga; G–hourly fuel consumption; Gp–pogektarny fuel consumption.

Development by Ukraine of release of family arable propashnyx the HTZ-120/160 tractors gives the chance to develop scale of new combined and shirokozakhvatny MTA which are characterized by higher technical and economic indicators on their basis.

(On magazine materials Equipment of agrarian and industrial complex).