Assessment of level of technical providing systems of processing of the soil and crops

Results of tests of the 4th main systems of processing of the soil are considered. The table with indicators on fuel consumption, expenses of work and a factor operational cost on each system is provided.

           Development of agricultural machinery caused emergence of new technologies which are based, as a rule, on refusal of such power-intensive operation, as a plowed land, in favor of wide use of superficial and minimum processing of the soil, a mulchirovaniye of a surface of a field the pozhnivny remains, seeding of sideratny cultures.

          Existence of big massifs of grounds is pledge for wide introduction of modern resource-saving production technologies. Powerful tractors and shirokozakhvatny units are effective under condition of big seasonal loading (5000-1000 hour/year), i.e. in farms with the area of grounds more than 5000 hectares.

           In UKRNIIPIT of. L.Pogorelogo on research fields considered four main systems of processing of the soil: traditional technology of processing and crops, technology of bezotvalny main processing and a soil mulchirovaniye, technology of crops with superficial processing and a soil mulchirovaniye the vegetative remains and technology of direct crops of winter crops.

           The traditional technology is based on loosening with a complete revolution of a layer of the soil and absolute seal of the vegetative remains.

  The preserving system of processing of the soil (bezotvalny) without a turn of its layer is based on deep (30 cm and more) loosening, a mulchirovaniye with a partial turn of a layer of earth and preservation about 30 % of the vegetative remains for its surfaces.

           The technology of direct sowing of winter crops provides complete preservation of the vegetative remains on surfaces and, as a rule, performance of a complex of operations on chemical weeding.

           The tested domestic seeders for direct crops showed that they are only at the first stages of development. During too time in the world this sector is presented by a wide model range.

           Indicators of energy saving of different systems of processing of the soil and sowing

            

           If to take expenses on traditional technology for 100 percent, depending on a technological level it is possible to provide decrease in expenses of fuel at bezotvalny processing from 12 to 50 %, and at technology of direct sowing – to 87 %. Expenses of work and a factor operational cost decrease.

           Thus systems of processing of the soil have the reserves resource-and energy saving, however economy of fuel and work isn’t in direct correlation with costs of acquisition of equipment and its service. The equipment of national production can be used in resource-saving technologies, however it has low reliability and can be recommended for effective use at insignificant volumes of its annual loading (to 200).

Efficiency of use of foreign equipment depends on mashinoispolzovaniye forms at which big annual amounts of works ( 500-1000 hour/year) are provided.

 (On magazine materials Equipment of agrarian and industrial complex).